Virgil

Virgil: The Georgics

Mosaïque_des_Saisons_(Louvre)_élevage_de_chèvresThe Georgics (Latin: Georgica) is a didactic poem by Virgil (70-19 BC) on agriculture and rural life, after the manner of Hesiod's Works and Days. Completed in 29 BC, it was his second major poem after the Eclogues.

Book 1 focuses on arable farming and the disruption caused by the murder of Caesar, underlining that Virgil's portrait of rural peace had political undertones. The same could be said of his praise of rural Italy in book 2, which concentrates on the cultivation of trees such as the olive and the vine, while Book 3 covers cattle farming. Book 4 deals with bee-keeping, introducing an influential metaphor for human society.

English translators of the Georgics include John Dryden, who famously accounted it 'the best poem of the best poet.'

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Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Georgics. English translation. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Georgics of Virgil, translated by William Sotheby (1808). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: The Georgics. HTML and TXT formats.

Liberty Fund: Georgics, translated by Arthur S. Way. Multiple formats.

LoebulusL063N - Virgil -- Eclogues. Georgics. Aeneid, Books 1-6. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Latin text and English translation by J.B. Greenough. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: The Georgics, translated by A.S. Kline (2001). Multiple formats.

Sacred Texts: Georgics. Latin text and prose translation by J.W. MacKail. HTML format.

Theoi: Georgics, translated by H.R. Fairclough. HTML format.

Times Literary Supplement: The Bees (Virgil’s Georgics: Book IV), translated by Peter McDonald. 6 September 2016.

University of Adelaide: The Georgics, translated by J.B. Greenough. Multiple formats.

University of Michigan: Virgil's Georgics, translated by John Dryden. HTML format.

Wikisource: Latin text and multiple English translations. HTML and other formats.

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Virgil: The Aeneid

The death of Dido, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Wikimedia CommonsThe Aeneid (Latin: Aeneis) is an epic poem by Virgil written between 29 and 19 BCE, during the early years of Augustus' rule of Rome. The appearance of a Roman national epic at around this time may reflect the role Virgil's patron, Maecenas, as cultural advisor to Augustus.

Virgil embellishes existing stories linking the Romans to the Trojans to systematically synthesise Latin traditions with Homeric myth, integrating many other Greek and Roman poetic influences. The legend of Aeneas' exile from Troy is the kernel for a foundation myth that prefigures the unification of Italy, and in the story of Aeneas and Dido, the struggle for supremacy between Rome and Carthage.

The Aeneid at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Aeneid, translated by John Dryden. | Translation by E. Fairfax Taylor. | Translation by J.W. MacKail. | Aeneidos. Latin text. Multiple formats.

Intratext, Aeneid, translated by John Dryden. HTML format. 

Latin Library: Aeneid. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L063N - Virgil -- Eclogues. Georgics. Aeneid, Books 1-6. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Loebulus. L064N - Virgil -- Aeneid Books 7-12, The Minor Poems. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Online Library of Liberty: Aeneid, translated by John Dryden. Multiple formats.

Perseus: Aeneid, translated by Theodore C. Williams | Translation by John Dryden | Latin text, edited by J.B. Greenough. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: The Aeneid. HTML format, translated by A.S. Kline.

Sacred Texts: The Aeneid, translated by John Dryden. HTML format.

Theoi: Aeneid, Books 1-6, translated by H.R. Fairclough. HTML format.

University of Adelaide: Aeneid, translated by John Dryden. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Aeneid: Full Dryden translation along with other partial and incomplete translations.

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