Platonism

Plato: Philebus

The Philebus is a late Platonic dialogue on ethics in which Socrates argues against the hedonistic position propounded by his two interlocutors, Philebus and Protarchus.

Free online and downloadable texts

Gutenberg: Philebus, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Perseus: Greek text (Burnet ed., 1903). English translation (Fowler, 1925). Online texts.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Philebus, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: Philebus, translated by Benjamin Jowett (1892).

Other resources

Librivox: Philebus

PhilPapers: Plato - Philebus - bibliography with open access option.

Wikipedia: Philebus

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: The Statesman

The Statesman or Politicus is a late Platonic dialogue, a sequel to The Sophist, addressing similar themes. The discussion seeks to identify the kind of knowledge proper to the true statesman, distinguishing it from the knowledge of appearances that characterizes the sophist.

Free online and downloadable texts

Gutenberg: The Statesman, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Perseus: The Statesman. Greek text (Burnet ed., 1903). English translation (Fowler, 1921). Online texts.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Statesman. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: The Statesman, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Online text.

Other resources

Librivox: The Statesman - public domain audiobook.

PhilPapers: Plato - Politicus - bibliography with open access option.

Wikipedia: The Statesman.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Plato: The Sophist

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: The Critias

Terror Antiquus by Leon Bakst (1908). Via Wikimedia Commons.The Critias is one of Plato's late dialogues, an incomplete sequel to the Timaeus. The main speaker is possibly the historical Athenian aristocrat and relative of Plato, or his grandfather of the same name. Critias presents what is the earliest known version of the myth of Atlantis, a city which is said to have fought a war against prehistoric Athens. Plato's motive for presenting this story, which is attributed in the dialogue to an Egyptian source, has been debated ever since.

The Critias at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free Online and Downloadable Texts

Gutenberg: The Critias, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Perseus: Greek text (Burnet ed., 1903). English translation (Lamb, 1925). Online texts.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Critias. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: Critias, translated by Benjamin Jowett, online text.

Other Resources

Ancient Greece Declassified: Decoding Atlantis with Mark Adams, podcast by Lantern Jack.

Librivox: Critias - public domain audiobook.

PhilPapers: Plato - Critias - bibliography with open access option.

Wikipedia: Critias.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato: Timaeus.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: The Laws

The Laws is Plato's last and longest dialogue, and the only one in which Socrates does not appear, unless indeed he is the mysterious Athenian Stranger who joins the Spartan Megillos and the Cretan statesman Clinias. While it is not a dialogue one would choose as introduction to Plato, for serious students of his political theory it is an essential counterpart to the Republic, presenting an apparently more realistic set of proposals than the earlier dialogue, prefiguring the mixed constitution advocated by Aristotle, Polybius and Cicero. Plato's final word is, in the eyes of some, the product of a man disillusioned by his attempts to put his political ideals into practice at the courts of the tyrants of Syracuse.

Free Online and Downloadable Texts

Gutenberg: Laws by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Loebulus. L187 - Plato -- Laws I: Books 1-6. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Loebulus. L192 - Plato -- Laws II: Books 7-12. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: The Laws. Greek text (Burnet ed., 1903). English translation (Bury, 1967-68). Online texts.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Laws, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: The Laws (Plato), translated by Benjamin Jowett. Online text.

Other Resources

Librivox: The Laws - public domain audiobook.

PhilPapers: Plato - Laws - bibliography with open access option.

Wikipedia: The Laws (Dialogue).

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato: The Republic.

Aristotle: The Politics.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Timaeus

Plato bearing the Timaeus - a detail from Raphael's School of Athens - via Wikimedia Commons.The Timaeus (Greek: Τίμαιος) is a late Platonic dialogue in which the eponymous narrator provides an extended account of the creation and structure of the universe. One of the few dialogues known to the Medieval European West before the Renaissance, it had a major influence on the tradition of natural philosophy.

The Timaeus at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free Online and Downloadable Texts

Classics in the History of Psychology: Timaeus translated by Benjamin Jowett. Online text.

Ellopos: Timaeus. Greek and English, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Online text.

Gutenberg: Timaeus by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Timaeus, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: Timaeus, translated by Benjamin Jowett.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: A Likely Story: Plato's Timaeus - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

PhilPapers: Plato - Timaeus - bibliography with open access option.

Robert Craven: Timaeus concordance.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Timaeus.

Wikipedia: Timaeus.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato: Critias - an incomplete sequel to the Timaeus.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: The Sophist

The Sophist is one of a small number of late Platonic dialogues in which Socrates cedes the lead role, in this case to the Eleatic Stranger, a follower of the presocratic philosophers Parmenides and Zeno. The discussion is presented as taking place a few days after the Theaetetus, and picks up some of the earlier dialogues themes in the course of discussing how the sophist differs from the true philosopher and the statesman.

Free Online and Downloadable Texts

Gutenberg: The Sophist, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Loebulus. L123 - Plato - Theaetetus. Sophist. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text (Burnet ed., 1903). English translation (Fowler, 1921). Online texts.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Sophist, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: The Sophist, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Online text.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Fiona Leigh on Plato's Sophist - podcast by philosophers Peter Adamson and Fiona Leigh.

Librivox: The Sophist - audiobook.

PhilPapers: Plato - Sophist - bibliography with open access option.

Ontology.co: Semantics, Predication, Truth and Falsehood in Plato's Sophist.

Ontology.co: Annotated Bibliography on Plato's Sophist. First Part: A - L.

Ontology.co: Annotated Bibliography on Plato's Sophist. Second Part: M - Z.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Method and Metaphysics in Plato's Sophist and Statesman.

Wikipedia: The Sophist.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Theaetetus

The Theatetus is Plato's most extended discussions of the theory of knowledge. The absence of the theory of forms from the dialogue has perplexed commentators, some of whom conclude that Plato abandoned the theory in the light of the criticisms adduced in the Parmenides.

Free Online and Downloadable Texts

Gutenberg: Theatetus, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Loebulus. L123 - Plato - Theaetetus. Sophist. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text (Burnet ed., 1903). English translation (Fowler, 1921). Online texts.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Theaetetus, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: Theaetetus, translated by Benjamin Jowett, 1871. Online text.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: I Know, Because the Caged Bird Sings: Plato's Theaetetus - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Librivox: Theaetetus - audiobook.

Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy: Plato - Theaetetus.

PhilPapers: Plato - Theaetetus - bibliography with open access option.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plato on Knowledge in the Theatetus.

Wikipedia: Theatetus.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Symposium

 

The Symposium is one of Plato's finest literary achievements, an extended meditation on the nature of love set at a dinner party featuring prominent real-life Athenians such as the great comic dramatist Aristophanes, and the controversial political prodigy, Alcibiades.

Free Online Texts

Bacchicstage: Plato's Symposium. Translated by George Theodoridis (2015). English online text.

Gutenberg: Symposium by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive; Symposium, translated by Benjamin Jowett, online text.

Perseus: Greek text (Burnet ed., 1903). English translation (Fowler, 1925).

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Symposium, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: Symposium, translated by Benjamin Jowett (1871), online text.

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Plato: The Republic

 

The Republic is Plato's best-known work. An extended reflection on the nature of justice, which retains much of the style of the early dialogues in the opening conversation in Athens, pitting Socrates against the cynical sophist Thrasymachus. From there the dialogue opens out into an extended discussion of the politics of the ideal city, which is closely bound up with ethical considerations, before taking in metaphysical and theological themes with Plato's most striking metaphor, the parable of the cave, and a meditation on the the fate of the individual soul in the myth of Er.

Free Online and Downloadable Texts

Gutenberg: The Republic by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: The Republic translated by Benjamin Jowett, online text.

Libertyfund: The Republic, translated by Benjamin Jowett, online text.

Loebulus. L237 - Plato --Republic I: Books 1-5. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Loebulus. L276 - Plato --Republic II: Books 6-10. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: The Republic: Greek text (Burnet ed.,1903 ). English translation (Shorey, 1969). Online texts.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Republic, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: The Republic, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Online text.

Other Resources

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: Plato's Republic. Melvyn Bragg with Angie Hobbs, MM McCabe, James Warren.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Soul and the City: Plato's Political Philosophy - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Ain't No Sunshine: The Cave Allegory of Plato's Republic - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plato: The Republic.

Librivox: The Republic - audiobook.

Openculture: Orson Welles Narrates an Animation of Plato’s Cave Allegory - video.

Open Culture: Plato’s Cave Allegory Brought to Life with Claymation - video.

PhilPapers: Plato - Republic - bibliography with open source option.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plato's  Ethics and Politics in the Republic.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Callicles and Thrasymachus.

University of Utah: Culture and Society in Plato's Republic, by M.F. Burnyeat. PDF format.

Wikipedia: The Republic (Plato).

YouTube: History of Ancient Philosophy - Plato's "Republic," books I & II | Plato's Republic II, Apology, & Crito |
Plato's "Republic," books VI & VII. Lectures by Adam Rosenfeld.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Parmenides

Parmenides  - Detail from Raphael's School of Athens. Wikipedia.The Parmenides is among the most enigmatic of Plato's dialogues, bringing Socrates into a profound metaphysical debate with two of the most influential Presocratic philosophers, Parmenides himself, and Zeno of Elea. The work fascinated ancient neoplatonist commentators, whose own interpretation of Plato emphasised his affinities with the Eleatic school.

Free Online and Downloadable Texts

Gutenberg: Parmenides by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Parmenides, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Online text.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Parmenides, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Second Thoughts: Plato's Parmenides and the Forms - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Librivox: Parmenides - audiobook.

Ontology.co: Plato's Parmenides and the Dilemma of Participation.

PhilPapers: Plato - Parmenides - bibliography with open source option.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plato's Parmenides.

Wikipedia: Parmenides.

YouTube: History of Ancient Philosophy - Plato's Parmenides. Lecture by Adam Rosenfeld.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.