Plato

Plato: Parmenides

Parmenides  - Detail from Raphael's School of Athens. Wikipedia.The Parmenides is among the most enigmatic of Plato's dialogues, bringing Socrates into a profound metaphysical debate with two of the most influential Presocratic philosophers, Parmenides himself, and Zeno of Elea. The work fascinated ancient neoplatonist commentators, whose own interpretation of Plato emphasised his affinities with the Eleatic school.

Free Online and Downloadable Texts

Gutenberg: Parmenides by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Parmenides, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Online text.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Parmenides, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Second Thoughts: Plato's Parmenides and the Forms - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Librivox: Parmenides - audiobook.

Ontology.co: Plato's Parmenides and the Dilemma of Participation.

PhilPapers: Plato - Parmenides - bibliography with open source option.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plato's Parmenides.

Wikipedia: Parmenides.

YouTube: History of Ancient Philosophy - Plato's Parmenides. Lecture by Adam Rosenfeld.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Meno

The Meno is among the most famous of Plato's shorter dialogues, thanks to Socrates exposition of the theory of innate knowledge or anamnesis, by using close questioning to elicit from a slave geometrical knowledge that he did not know he had. The problem to which this theory is a response, of how we can come to know anything of which we are originally ignorant, has become known as Meno's paradox.

Free Online and Downloadable Texts

Gutenberg: Meno by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Loebulus. L165 - Plato - Laches. Protagoras. Meno. Euthydemus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Meno. English text (Lamb, 1967). Greek text ( Burnet ed., 1903)

Social Science Research Network: Meno, translated by Cathal Woods (2012).

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Meno, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Other Resources

Approaching Plato: A Guide to the Early and Middle Dialogues

Dale E. Burrington: Guides to the Socratic Dialogues.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: We Don't Need No Education: Plato's Meno - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

PhilPapers: Plato - Meno - bibliography with open access option.

Wikipedia: Meno.

YouTube: History of Ancient Philosophy - Plato's Meno Part 1 | Part 2. Lectures by Adam Rosenfeld.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Euthydemus

The Euthydemus is a Socratic dialogue pitting Socrates against two brothers, the sophists Euthydemus and Dionysodorus.

Free Online Texts

Gutenberg: Euthydemus by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Euthydemus, translated by Benjamin Jowett, online text.

Loebulus. L165 - Plato - Laches. Protagoras. Meno. Euthydemus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Euthydemus, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: Euthydemus, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Online text, downloadable via bookcreator.

Other Resources

Approaching Plato: A Guide to the Early and Middle Dialogues

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Know Thyself: Two Unloved Platonic Dialogues - podcast with philosophers Peter Adamson and M.M. McCabe.

Librivox: Euthydemus - audiobook.

PhilPapers: Plato - Euthydemus - bibliography with open source option.

Wikipedia: Euthydemus.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Cratylus

The Cratylus is a Socratic dialogue notable for Plato's foundational contribution to the philosophy of language.

Free Online and Downloadable Texts

Gutenberg: Cratylus by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Cratylus, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: What's in a Name? Plato's Cratylus - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Leiden University Classics Department: A Bibliography on Plato's Cratylus.

Librivox: Cratylus audiobook

PhilPapers: Plato - Cratylus - bibliography with open access option.

Wikipedia: Cratylus

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Protagoras

The Protagoras is a Socratic dialogue which features perhaps one of the most interesting of Socrates' intellectual opponents. Plato provides a relatively sympathetic portrait of the sophist Protagoras, a historical figure who is believed to have been close to the Athenian leader, Pericles. 

Free Online and Downloadable Texts

About.com: Protagoras Dialogue - Benjamin Jowett Public Domain Translation.

Gutenberg: Protagoras by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Loebulus. L165 - Plato - Laches. Protagoras. Meno. Euthydemus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: English text (Lamb, 1967). Greek text (Burnet, ed 1903). 

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Protagoras, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: Protagoras, translated by Benjamin Jowett.

Other Resources

Approaching Plato: A Guide to the Early and Middle Dialogues

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Protagoras - biography of the historical sophist.

PhilPapers: Plato - Protagoras - bibliography with open access option.

Librivox: Protagoras - audiobook.

Wikipedia: Protagoras

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Ancient Greek resources: learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Lysis

The Lysis (Greek: Λύσις) is a dialogue by Plato on the nature of love and friendship.

Lysis at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free Online Texts

Gutenberg: Lysis by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Perseus: Lysis. English text (Lamb, 1955). Greek text (Burnet .ed, 1903)

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Lysis, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: Lysis, translated by Benjamin Jowett, online text.

Other Resources

Approaching Plato: A Guide to the Early and Middle Dialogues

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Wings of Desire: Plato's Erotic Dialogues - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Librivox: Lysis - audiobook

Philpapers: Plato - Lysis - open access papers.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plato on Friendship and Eros, by C.D.C Reeve.

Wikipedia: Lysis

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato: Symposium, Phaedrus - along with the Lysis, these are considered to be Plato's erotic dialogues.

 Ancient Greek resources: learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Laches

The Laches (Greek: Λάχης) is a dialogue by Plato on the nature of courage. Among Socrates' interlocutors are two notable Athenian generals, Laches and Nicias.

Laches at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free Online Texts

Gutenberg: Laches by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Perseus: English text (Lamb, 1955). Greek text (Burnet ed., 1903)

Loebulus. L165 - Plato - Laches. Protagoras. Meno. Euthydemus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

University of Adelaide: Laches, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Laches, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Online text.

Other Resources

Approaching Plato: A Guide to the Early and Middle Dialogues

Librivox: Laches - audiobook.

Philpapers: Plato - Laches - open access papers.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plato's Shorter Ethical Works, by Paul Woodruff.

Wikipedia: Laches

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Thucydides: History of the Peloponnesian War - describes the career of Nicias and his ultimate fate in the Sicilian Expedition.

Ancient Greek resources: learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Ion

The Ion (Greek: Ἴων) is a dialogue in which Socrates discusses the nature of poetry with a rhapsode, a professional performer who specialises in giving oral recitations from Homer. Socrates questions whether his ability is the result of skill or divine inspiration.

The dialogue is a key example of Plato's suspicion of mimesis or imitation. It could also be seen as a critique of the place of oral tradition in Greek culture, although as the Phaedrus shows, Plato also had doubts about the advantages of writing.

Ion at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France |  Germany | Spain | Italy

Free Online and Downloadable Texts

Gutenberg: Ion by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Ion, HTML and TXT formats.

Perseus: Ion. English text (Lamb 1925). Greek text (Burnet ed. 1903).

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Ion, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: Ion, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Online text.

Other Resources

Approaching Plato: A Guide to the Early and Middle Dialogues

Librivox: Ion - public domain audiobook.

Philpapers: Ion - open access papers.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plato on Rhetoric and Poetry, by Charles L. Griswold.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plato's Aesthetics, by Nickolas Pappas.

Wikipedia: Ion

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Homer: The Iliad and the Odyssey - The high proportion of direct speech in these epics set the tone for the mimetic aspect of Greek literature which troubled Plato although it was, ironically, reflected in his own use of the dialogue form.

Plato: Phaedrus.

Plato: The Republic - in which the poets are famously banished from the ideal city.

Aristotle: The Poetics.

Ancient Greek resources: learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Hippias Major

Hippias Major or Greater Hippias (Greek: Ἱππίας μείζων) is a dialogue by Plato on the subject of beauty. Socrates' chief interlocutor is the sophist Hippias of Elis, who also features in the Hippias Minor.

Hippias Major at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free Online Texts

Gutenberg: Ιππίας, Μείζων και Ελάσσων. Greek text, multiple formats.

Perseus: Greek text, edited by John Burnet (1903). English text, translated by W.R.M. Lamb (1925).

Wikisource: Greater Hippias, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Hippias - short biography of the historical sophist.

Librivox: Apocrypha of Plato - audiobook.

Philpapers: Hippias Major - open access papers.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plato's Shorter Ethical Works, by Paul Woodruff.

Wikipedia: Hippias Major.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato: Hippias Minor.

Ancient Greek resources: learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Hippias Minor

Hippias Minor or Lesser Hippias (Greek: Ἱππίας ἐλάττων) is a dialogue by Plato in which Socrates confronts the sophist Hippias of Elis, also the interlocutor of the Hippias Major.

Hippias Minor at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free Online Texts

Gutenberg: Lesser Hippias. Multiple formats.

Perseus: Greek text, edited by John Burnet (1903). English text, translated by W.R.M Lamb (1925). HTML and XML formats.

University of Adelaide: The Lesser Hippias, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Lesser Hippias, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

Academia.edu: The Power of the False in the Lesser Hippias of Plato - Carolina Araujo.

Approaching Plato: A Guide to the Early and Middle Dialogues.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Hippias - short biography of the historical sophist.

Librivox: Lesser Hippias - public domain audiobook.

Philpapers: Plato - Hippias Minor - open access papers.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plato's Shorter Ethical Works, by Paul Woodruff.

WillieCostello.com: The Socratic Elenchus - Plato's Lesser Hippias, lectures slides by Willie Costello.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Homer: The Iliad - much of the discussion centres around a comparison of Achilles and Odysseus.

Plato: Hippias Major.

Aristotle: Metaphysics - criticises Socrates' argument in the Hippias Minor at Metaphysics 1025a.

Ancient Greek resources: learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.