Philosophy

Hegel: The Phenomenology of Mind

Hegel-and-Napoleon-in-Jena-1806
Hegel and Napoelon in Jena. Harper's Magazine, via Wikisource.

The Phenomenology of Mind or Phenomenology of Spirit (German: Phänomenologie des Geistes),  originally published in 1807, was the first major philosophical work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and still the most influential.

Like much of Hegel's writing, it is notoriously difficult, but can be described as an account of the necessary steps in the development of thought. It's description of the relationship between self and other is significant for establishing the irreducibly social nature of consciousness.

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Translations

Internet Archive: The Phenomenology of Mind, Vol 1 | Vol 2, translated by J. B. Baillie. EPUB, MOBI, TXT and PDF formats.

Marxists Internet Archive: Hegel's Phenomenology of Mind, translated by Terry Pinkard.

University of Adelaide/Internet Archive: The Phenomenology of Mind, translated by J.B. Baillie. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: The Phenomenology of Mind, translated by James Black Baillie. Currently introduction only. HTML and other formats.

German texts

Deutsches Textarchiv: Die Phänomenologie des Geistes. HTML, Text, XML formats.

Gutenberg: Phänomenologie des Geistes. EPUB, HTML, MOBI and PDF  formats.

Internet Archive: System der Wissenschaft - Erster Theil, die Phänomenologie des Geistes. EPUB, MOBI, PDF and TXT formats.

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Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations

Adam_smithAn Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, published by Scottish philosopher Adam Smith in 1776, is the foundational work in the tradition of classical political economy, the precursor of the modern discipline of economics.

Smith's defence of the free market was a powerful influence on 19th century liberalism. He was, however, also critical of institutions such as corporations, which have become increasingly characteristic of modern capitalism.

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Free online texts

Early Modern Texts: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Adapted for modern readers by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Gutenberg: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. EPUB, HTML, MOBI and TXT formats.

Internet Archive: The Wealth of Nations. 1909 Harvard Classics edition. EPUB, MOBI, TXT and PDF formats.

Internet Archive: The Wealth of Nations. 1937 Modern Library edition. EPUB, MOBI, TXT and PDF formats.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: The Wealth of Nations. HTML and other formats.

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Rousseau: The Social Contract

800px-Jean-Jacques_Rousseau_(painted_portrait)The Social Contract (French: Du Contrat Social) is a 1762 treatise by Jean Jacques Rousseau, outlining a theory of political rights based on unlimited popular sovereignty.

In contrast to Hobbes, Rousseau argues that is only in political society that human beings can be truly free. His suggestion that under circumstances people must be forced to be free has led some to see him as an authoritarian, although this has been challenged by those who stress his egalitarian republicanism. His undoubted role as a key intellectual influence on the French Revolution has given point to the controversy.

The Social Contract at online book stores

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Free online texts

Early Modern Texts: The Social Contract, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Gutenberg: The Social Contract and Discourses, translated by G.D.H. Cole. EPUB, HTML, MOBI and TXT formats.

Internet Archive: A Treatise on the Social Compact. English translation. Multiple formats. Digitisation of a copy owned by John Adams.

Online Library of Liberty: Ideal Empires and Republics. Rousseau’s Social Contract, More’s Utopia, Bacon’s New Atlantis, Campanella’s City of the Sun, with an Introduction by Charles M. Andrews (1901). Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Social Contract. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: French texts and English translation by George Douglas Howard Cole. HTML and other formats.

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Augustine: On the Trinity

Dogmatic_sarcophagusOn the Trinity (Latin: De Trinitate) is a theological work by St Augustine, written in the early 5th century CE. In offering a philosophical defence of the Christian doctrine of the trinity, Augustine makes a number of arguments whose significance goes beyond their apologetic purpose. His arguments against skepticism in this and other works have often been seen as a precursor to those of Descartes.

The most common public domain translation is that of Arthur West Haddan for the Select Library of the Nice and Post-Nicene Fathers.

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English transations

Christian Classics Ethereal Library: On the Holy Trinity; Doctrinal Treatises; Moral Treatises. On the Trinity translated by Arthur West Haddan. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: On The Trinity, translated by Arthur West Haddan. EPUB, MOBI, PDF, TXT formats.

Internet Archive: On the Holy Trinity; Doctrinal Treatises; Moral Treatises. Select Library of the Nice and Post-Nicene Fathers, translated by Arthur West Haddan. EPUB, MOBI, PDF, TXT formats.

Logos Virtual Library: On The Trinity, translated by Arthur West Haddan. HTML and other formats.

New Advent: On the Trinity, translated by Arthur West Haddan, revised by Kevin Knight. HTML format.

Sacred Texts: On the Holy Trinity; Doctrinal Treatises; Moral Treatises, translated by Arthur West Haddan. HTML format.

Tertullian.org: On the Holy Trinity; Doctrinal Treatises; Moral Treatises, translated by Arthur West Haddan. HTML format.

Wikisource: On the Holy Trinity, English translation by Arthur West Haddan. HTML and other formats.

Latin texts

Latin Library: Augustine of Hippo, De Trinitate and other Latin texts. HTML format.

Wikisource: De Trinitate (Aurelius Augustinus), Latin text. HTML and other formats.

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Kant: The Critique of Pure Reason

Immanuel_Kant_(painted_portrait)The Critique of Pure Reason (German: Kritik der reinen Vernunft), often known as the First Critique, is a 1781 work by Immanuel Kant. It is a foundational text of modern Western philosophy, proposing a 'Copernican turn' in the approach to central questions posed by previous thinkers. Rather than assuming that the mind must conform to its objects, Kant posited that objects must conform to our minds. Objects must conform to the conditions of possible experience to be experienced at all, and so we can know that they will conform to them, but that knowledge does not extend beyond our experience, to things as they are in themselves, limiting our ability to make many traditional metaphysical claims.

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English translations

Early Modern Texts: The Critique of Pure Reason, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Gutenberg: The Critique of Pure Reason. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Critique of Pure Reason, translated by J.M.D. Meiklejohn (Everyman's Library edition, 1934). Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Critique of Pure Reason, translated by J.M.D. Meiklejohn. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Multiple English translations including J.M.D. Meiklejohn, F. Max Müller and Norman Kemp Smith. HTML and other formats.

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Berkeley: Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous

George_Berkeley._Line_engraving._Wellcome_V0000473Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous is a 1713 philosophical work by George Berkeley, written as a dialogue in which the characters discuss the metaphysical ideas which Berkeley had previously propounded to some criticism in A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge.

The two characters are given Greek names which reflect their respective commitments. Hylas is named after the Greek word for matter and takes a materialist position. Philonous, 'lover of mind', defends an idealist stance which is largely Berkeley's own.

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Free online texts

Early Modern Texts: Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Gutenberg: Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous (1901). Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. HTML and other formats.

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Berkeley: A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge

George_Berkeley_by_Jonh_SmibertA Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge is a 1710 work by George Berkeley, which sets out an idealist theory of knowledge, similar to that of Locke, in the service of a radically different idealist metaphysics. Berkeley argues that the source of our ideas cannot be material things, but only other ideas, and the ultimate basis of objective reality is therefore the existence of ideas in the mind of God.

A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Early Modern Texts: The Principles of Human Knowledge, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Gutenberg : A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Principles of Human Knowledge (1907). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Principles of Human Knowledge, with works by Locke and Hume. (Great Books of the Western World edition, 1937). Multiple formats.

Trinity College Dublin: A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge. Multiple Formats.

Wikisource: A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge. HTML and other formats.

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Hume: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

DavidHumeDialogues Concerning Natural Religion, by David Hume (1711-1776), was first published  in 1779. The choice of the dialogue form, modelled on Cicero, as well as its posthumous appearance, reflected the work's far reaching implications for contemporary religious authority.

The three central characters are Cleanthes, an 'experimental theist', typical of eighteenth century progressive theologians, Demea, a traditionalist mystic, and Philo, a radical sceptic, whose views are often taken to be closest to Hume's own. While there is some debate over whether Hume's position entailed strict athiesm, or allowed for some philsopophical conceptions of God such as deism, he is generally seen as hostile to organised religion.

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Free online texts

Early Modern Texts: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Gutenberg: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, edited by Henry D. Aitken (Hafner Library of Classics, 1948). Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: (Internet Archive): Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. HTML and other formats.

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Hume: An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals

David_Hume_RamsayAn Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals is a 1751 work by David Hume, which developed the ethical philosophy first expounded in his Treatise on Human Nature. It is often known as as the Second Enquiry, to distinguish it from an Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.

While the classification of Hume's ethical position remains controversial, it can be described as sentamentalist, in rejecting the view that moral judgements can be founded on reason alone.

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Free online texts

Early Modern Texts: An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Gutenberg: An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (1912). Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): An Enquiry into the Principles of Morals. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals. HTML and other formats.

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Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

Painting_of_David_HumeAn Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a 1748 work by David Hume. It is often known as the First Enquiry, as distinguished from the Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Human Morals. Both works provide succinct accounts of aspects of the philosophy originally developed in Hume's Treatise on Human Nature.

The opening sections of the Enquiry offer a theory of knowledge which owes much to Locke, while making a clearer distinction between sense impressions and ideas. Hume's more fundamental departure was his conclusion that there was no rational justification for our making judgements about the world based on cause and effect, and that we do so simply out of custom and habit.

In the latter part of the book, Hume applied his scepticism to a variety of metaphysical and religious beliefs, concluding however with a chapter recommending the approach of the more moderate Academic sceptics among the ancients, rather than that of the more radical Pyrrhonians.

He ends with a paragraph whose precise significance, as a criterion of truth or of meaningfulness, has been much debated by later analytic philosophers:

When we run over libraries, persuaded of these principles, what havoc must we make? If we take in our hand any volume; of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance; let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number? No. Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence? No. Commit it then to the flames: for it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion.

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Free online texts

Early Modern Texts: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Gutenberg: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, and Selections from A Treatise of Human Nature (1907). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, with works by Locke and Berkeley. (Great Books of the Western World edition, 1937). Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding. HTML and other formats.

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