Latin Literature

Virgil: The Eclogues

1024px-RomanVirgilFolio001rEcloguesThe Eclogues (Latin: Eclogae or Bucolica)  are a collection of ten pastoral poems by the Roman poet Virgil. Though modelled on the Greek Idylls of Theocritus, they are innovative in their use of the form for social commentary, contrasting the Arcadian ideal with the troubled society of late republican Rome.

Some of the rural conflicts portrayed may reflect Virgil's own possible eviction from his farm during the Civil Wars. Eclogue 4, which prophesied the birth of a child who would initiate a new era, may have been intended in praise of Octavian. During the Middle Ages, it was widely interpreted in Christian terms.

The Eclogues at online book stores
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Free online texts
Bilingual editions

Loebulus. L063N - Virgil -- Eclogues. Georgics. Aeneid, Books 1-6. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.
English translations
Gutenberg: The Bucolics and Eclogues. EPUB, HTML, MOBI and TXT formats.
Internet Archive: The Eclogues of Virgil, translated by Samuel Palmer. EPUB, MOBI, PDF and TXT formats.
Poetry in Translation: The Eclogues, translated by A.S. Kline (2001). Multiple formats.
University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Eclogues of Virgil, translated by J.B. Greenough. EPUB, MOBI and HTML formats.
Wikisource: Eclogues (Virgil). Multiple translations. HTML and other formats.
Latin texts
Gutenberg: The Bucolics and Eclogues. EPUB, HTML, MOBI and TXT formats. 
Wikisource: Eclogae vel Bucolica. HTML and other formats.

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Horace: Odes

345Horace_and_Lydia_by_Albert_Edelfelt_(1854-1905)The Odes (Latin: Carmina) are a collection of lyric poems by the Roman poet Quintus Horatius Flaccus (known in English as Horace). Modelled on the Greek odes of Sappho and Alcaeus, they address a range of public and private subjects, and reflect the reconcilitation of Horace, a republican soldier during the Civil War, with the regime of Augustus.

The first three books, published in 23 BCE, are dedicated to the emperor's literary adviser, Maecenas, who was introduced to Horace by Virgil. A fourth volume was added a decade later.

The Odes at online book stores
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Free online texts
Bilingual texts
Internet Archive: Odes and Epodes, translated by C.E Bennett. Loeb edition. EPUB, MOBI, PDF and TXT formats.
English translations

Gutenberg: The Odes and Carmen Saeculare. EPUB, HTML, MOBI and TXT formats.
Perseus: Odes, translated by John Conington. HTML and XML formats.
Poetry in Translation: The Odes, translated by A.S. Kline (2003). Multiple formats.
University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Works of Horace, translated into English Prose by C. Smart. EPUB, MOBI and HTML formats.
Wikisource: Odes, translated by Wikisource (incomplete). HTML and other formats.
Wikisource: The  Odes and Carmen Saeculare, translated by John Conington (incomplete). HTML and other formats.
Latin texts
Gutenberg: Odes and Epodes, edited by Gordon Jennings Laing and Paul Shorey. EPUB, HTML, MOBI and TXT formats.
Perseus: Carmina, HTML and XML formats.
Wikisource: Carmina. HTML and other formats.

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Augustine: On the Trinity

Dogmatic_sarcophagusOn the Trinity (Latin: De Trinitate) is a theological work by St Augustine, written in the early 5th century CE. In offering a philosophical defence of the Christian doctrine of the trinity, Augustine makes a number of arguments whose significance goes beyond their apologetic purpose. His arguments against skepticism in this and other works have often been seen as a precursor to those of Descartes.

The most common public domain translation is that of Arthur West Haddan for the Select Library of the Nice and Post-Nicene Fathers.

On the Trinity at online book stores
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Free online texts

English transations

Christian Classics Ethereal Library: On the Holy Trinity; Doctrinal Treatises; Moral Treatises. On the Trinity translated by Arthur West Haddan. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: On The Trinity, translated by Arthur West Haddan. EPUB, MOBI, PDF, TXT formats.

Internet Archive: On the Holy Trinity; Doctrinal Treatises; Moral Treatises. Select Library of the Nice and Post-Nicene Fathers, translated by Arthur West Haddan. EPUB, MOBI, PDF, TXT formats.

Logos Virtual Library: On The Trinity, translated by Arthur West Haddan. HTML and other formats.

New Advent: On the Trinity, translated by Arthur West Haddan, revised by Kevin Knight. HTML format.

Sacred Texts: On the Holy Trinity; Doctrinal Treatises; Moral Treatises, translated by Arthur West Haddan. HTML format.

Tertullian.org: On the Holy Trinity; Doctrinal Treatises; Moral Treatises, translated by Arthur West Haddan. HTML format.

Wikisource: On the Holy Trinity, English translation by Arthur West Haddan. HTML and other formats.

Latin texts

Latin Library: Augustine of Hippo, De Trinitate and other Latin texts. HTML format.

Wikisource: De Trinitate (Aurelius Augustinus), Latin text. HTML and other formats.

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Lucan: Pharsalia

La_mort_de_Pompée (anonymous via Wikisource)The Pharsalia or On the Civil War (Latin: De Bello Civili) is an epic by the Roman poet Lucan (39-65 CE) recounting the conflict between Julius Caesar and Pompey. It consists of ten books, of which the last appears to be incomplete, breaking off during Caesar's campaign in Egypt.

Lucan strongly favours the republican side and the poem has been seen as a riposte to the Augustan propaganda of Virgil's Aeneid. Lucan's stoicism is reflected in his portrayal of Cato, and in his avoidance of divine intervention as a plot device.

The Pharsalia at online book stores
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Free online texts

Bilingual editions

Loebulus. L220 - Lucan -- The Civil War (Pharsalia). PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Latin text and English translation by Edward Ridley (1896). HTML and XML formats.

English translations

Gutenberg: Pharsalia, Dramatic Episodes of the Civil Wars, edited by Douglas B. Killings (1996). HTML, EPUB, MOBI and TXT formats.

Internet Archive: The Pharsalia, translated by Henry T. Riley (1853). PDF, EPUB, TXT, and MOBI formats.

Medieval and Classical Literature Library: Pharsalia, translated by Edward Ridley (1896). HTML format.

Poetry in Translation: Pharsalia, translated by A.S. Kline (2014). Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Pharsalia of Lucan, translated by Edward Ridley (1896). Multiple formats.

University of Virginia: Lucan's Pharsalia, translated by Arthur Gorges (1614). HTML format.

Latin texts

Intratext: Bellum Civile. HTML format.

Latin Library: De Bello Civili sive Pharsalia. HTML format.

Wikisource: Pharsalia (Book 1). HTML and other formats.

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Spinoza: The Ethics

SpinozaEthics, Demonstrated in Geometrical Order (Latin: Ethica, ordine geometrico demonstrata), is a Latin philosophical treatise by Baruch Spinoza, written in around 1664-5 and published shortly after Spinoza's death in 1677.

Spinoza presents his argument as a series of propositions, derived logically from a small number of axioms after the manner of Euclidean geometry. His system is monistic, in that posits reality as consisting of a single substance, and pantheistic in that identifies this substance with God.

Spinoza's conception of God is, however, sufficiently abstract that his thought has often been equated with atheism. This was for a long time a source of huge opprobrium, which meant that his influence on the radical enlightment of the seventeenth and eightenth centuries was largely subterranean. Since then, influence in his work has consistently grown. Among his twentieth century admirers was Albert Einstein who once said that he believed in Spinoza's God 'who reveals himself in the lawful harmony of the world, not in a God who concerns himself with the fate and the doings of mankind.'

The Ethics at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Bibliotheca Augustana: Ethica Ordine Geometrica Demonstrata. Latin text, HTML format.

Early Modern Texts: Ethics Demonstrated in Geometrical Order, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

EthicaDB: The Ethics. Translations in multiple European languages. HTML format.

Gutenberg: Ethics, translated by R.H.M. Elwes. Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: Improvement of the Understanding, Ethics and Correspondence, translated by R.H.M. Elwes. Multiple formats.

Middle Tennessee State University: Ethics, translated by RH.M. Elwes. HTML format.

SpinozaBase: Ethica. Latin text. HTML format.

Wikisource: Latin text and English translation by R.H.M. Elwes. HTML and other formats.

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Spinoza: The Theologico-Political Treatise

Saul_and_David_rembrandtThe Theologico-Political Treatise (Latin: Tractatus Theologico-Politicus) by Baruch Spinoza is an analysis of the Hebrew Bible published anonymously in Latin in 1670. Intended to vindicate political freedom against encroachments based on religious authority, its interpretation owed much to contemporary Hobbesian political theory. While extremely controversial in its own day, it was an important influence on later biblical criticism.

The Theologico-Political Treatise at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Early Modern Texts: Treatise on Theology and Politics, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Constitutional Society: Selected Political Works of Baruch de Spinoza. HTML and text formats.

Gutenberg: Theologico-Political Treatise - Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 - translated by R.H.M. Elwes. Multiple formats for parts 1 & 2, RDF for parts 3 & 4.

Internet Archive: The Chief Works of Benedict de Spinoza, Vol I, translated by R.H.M Elwes. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Theologico-Political Treatise. Latin text. Multiple formats.

Spinoza et Nouse: Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. Latin text. HTML format.

Wikisource: Theologico-Political Treatise, translated by Robert Willis. HTML and other formats.

Wikisource: Theologico-Political Treatise, translated by R.H. Elwes. (Currently incomplete, with only first part transcribed). HTML and other formats.

Yesselman.com: Theologico-Political Treatise, translated by RH. Elwes. HTML format.

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Seneca: Oedipus

IngresOdipusAndSphinxThe Oedipus of Seneca the Younger is a Latin adaptation of Sophocles' Oedipus Rex. As with many of Seneca's plays, the action is portrayed more directly than in the Greek model. Notably, in this instance, Jocasta's suicide takes place on stage, rather than being discovered after the fact as in Sophocles.

Oedipus at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: Tragedies I: Hercules Furens. Troades. Medea. Hippolytus. Oedipus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin with facing English translation by Frank Justus Miller.

Latin Library: Oedipus. Latin text. HTML format.

Loebulus: L062N - Tragedies I: Hercules Furens. Troades. Medea. Hippolytus. Oedipus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Theoi: Oedipus, translated by Frank Justus Miller. HTML format.

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Seneca: Phaedra or Hippolytus

Alexandre_Cabanel_PhèdrePhaedra or Hippolytus by Seneca the Younger is a Latin adaptation of Euripides' Hippolytus. Both plays tell the story of Phaedra, the wife of King Theseus and her passion for her step-son Hippolytus. Seneca's portrays the action more directly than Euripides, relying less on intermediaries and letters at key plot points.

Phaedra at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: Tragedies I: Hercules Furens. Troades. Medea. Hippolytus. Oedipus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin with facing English translation by Frank Justus Miller.

Latin Library: Phaedra. Latin text. HTML format.

Loebulus. L062N - Tragedies I: Hercules Furens. Troades. Medea. Hippolytus. Oedipus. Public domain Loeb edition in Latin with facing English translation by Frank Justus Miller. Multiple formats.

Theoi: Phaedra, translated by Frank Justus Miller. HTML format.

Wikisource: Hippolytus or Phaedra, translated by Frank Justus Miller. HTML and other formats.

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Francis Bacon: Novum Organum

Houghton_EC.B1328.620ib_-_Novum_organum_scientiarumThe New Organon (Latin: Novum Organum) is a Latin treatise on scientific method by Francis Bacon (1561-1621). Published in 1620, it was intened to form form part of a greater work which was never completed, the Instauratio Magna. Its title reflects Bacon's critique of ways thinking influenced by Aristotle's Organon, which he sought to replace with the experimental method and inductive reasoning.

The New Organon at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Bartleby: The New Organon Or, True Directions Concerning the Interpretation of Nature. English translation by James Spedding, Robert Leslie Ellis and Douglas Denon Heath. HTML format.

Early Modern Texts: The New Organon, adapted and translated into more modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Gutenberg: Novum Organum; Or, True Suggestions for the Interpretation of Nature, translated by Joseph Devey. Multiple formats. 

Hanover College: Novum Organum. English translation by Basil Montague (1854). HTML format.

Internet Archive: The Works of Francis Bacon, Vol IV (1858). Multiple formats.

Latin Library: Novum Organum. Latin text. HTML format.

Liberty Fund: Novum Organum. English translation by Joseph Devey. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The New Organon, translated by James Spedding, Robert Leslie Ellis, and Douglas Denon Heath (1863). Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Latin text and multiple translations. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: Baconian Science. Melvyn Bragg with Patricia Fara, Stephen Pumfrey and Rhodri Lewis.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Francis Bacon (1561 -1626).

Librivox: The New Organon - public domain audiobook.

PhilPapers: Francis Bacon - open access papers.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Francis Bacon.

Wikipedia: Novum Organum

YouTube/60 Second Philosophy: The New Organon overview.

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aristotle: The Organon - The foundational body of work on logic and scientific method whose authority Bacon sought to overturn.

John Aubrey: Brief Lives - includes a life of Bacon.

 


Apuleius: The Golden Ass

Lucius_is_returned_to_human_form_at_the_procession_of_IsisThe Metamorphoses of Apuleius, better known as The Golden Ass (Latin: Asinus aureus) is the only complete surviving Latin novel from antiquity. In eleven books, it tells the story of Lucius, a Greek who is magically transformed into an ass, undergoing in that form a series of picaresque adventures.

The Golden Ass at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

The English Server: The Golden Asse, English translation by William Adlington (1566). HTML format. Archived at the Internet Archive.

Forum Romanum: Metamorphoses. Latin text. HTML format. (Book I missing as of Dec 2018).

Gutenberg: The Golden Asse, English translation by William Adlington (1566). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Golden Ass, Greek text and English translation by William Adlington, revised by  S. Gaselee (1924). Loeb edition. Multiple formats.

Loebulus: L044 - Apuleius - The Golden Ass. Greek text and English translation. PDF format.

Perseus: Metamorphoses. Latin text. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: The Golden Ass, translated by A.S. Kline (2013). Multiple formats.

Sacred Texts Archive: The Golden Asse, English translation by William Adlington (1566). HTML format. See also The Marriage of Cupid and Psyche.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Golden Asse, English translation by William Adlington (1566). Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Latin text and English translation by William Adlington (1566). HTML and other formats.

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