Spinoza: The Theologico-Political Treatise

Saul_and_David_rembrandtThe Theologico-Political Treatise (Latin: Tractatus Theologico-Politicus) by Baruch Spinoza is an analysis of the Hebrew Bible published anonymously in Latin in 1670. Intended to vindicate political freedom against encroachments based on religious authority, its interpretation owed much to contemporary Hobbesian political theory. While extremely controversial in its own day, it was an important influence on later biblical criticism.

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Free online texts

Early Modern Texts: Treatise on Theology and Politics, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Constitutional Society: Selected Political Works of Baruch de Spinoza. HTML and text formats.

Gutenberg: Theologico-Political Treatise - Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 - translated by R.H.M. Elwes. Multiple formats for parts 1 & 2, RDF for parts 3 & 4.

Internet Archive: The Chief Works of Benedict de Spinoza, Vol I, translated by R.H.M Elwes. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Theologico-Political Treatise. Latin text. Multiple formats.

Spinoza et Nouse: Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. Latin text. HTML format.

Wikisource: Theologico-Political Treatise, translated by Robert Willis. HTML and other formats.

Wikisource: Theologico-Political Treatise, translated by R.H. Elwes. (Currently incomplete, with only first part transcribed). HTML and other formats.

Yesselman.com: Theologico-Political Treatise, translated by RH. Elwes. HTML format.

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Josephus: Against Apion

Against Apion (Greek: Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος Ἰουδαίων λόγος α and Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος ἀντιρρητικὸς λόγος β; Latin Contra Apionem or In Apionem) is the final work of the Jewish historian Josephus. Originally titled 'Concerning the Antiquity of the Jews', it is a powerful defence of Jewish culture against anti-Semitic critics such as the Alexandrian Greek scholar Apion. It's current title was bestowed by Jerome, who called Josephus 'the Jewish Livy'.

Against Apion at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free Online Texts

Gutenberg: Against Apion. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Complete Works of Flavius Josephus, translated by William Whiston (1737). Multiple formats.

Loebulus. L186 - Josephus -- Josephus I: The Life. Against Apion. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

PACE: Against Apion. Greek and English translation by William Whiston. HTML format.

Perseus: Greek text (Weidmann, 1892). English text, translated by William Whiston (1895).

Sacred Texts: The Works of Flavius Josephus, translated by William Whiston. HTML format.

Wikisource: Against Apion: Translated by William Whiston. Online, downloadable via Bookcreator.

Other resources

Librivox: Minor Works of Josephus - public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: Against Apion.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Josephus: The Antiquities of the Jews, The Jewish War, The Life of Flavius Josephus.

Tacitus: The Histories - includes hostile account of the Jewish Revolt that provides significant evidence of the attitude of the contemporary Roman ruling class.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.