Harvard Classics

Turold: The Song of Roland

SimonMarmionWikipedia-Grandes_chroniques_RolandThe Song of Roland (French: Chanson de Roland) is an old French epic poem, probably written in the late eleventh or early twelfth century. Traditionally attributed to a poet named Turoldus or Turold, it is the most famous example of the chanson de geste genre and the earliest surviving major work of French literature.

Its subject is very loosely inspired by the death of the Frankish commander Roland at the historical battle of Roncevaux in 778, during Charlemagne's campaign against Islamic Spain. Although the actual battle was fought against the Basques, it was romanticised in the song into a tale of Muslim perfidy and Christian revenge.

The milieu of the Carolingian court and heroes such as Roland and his companion Oliver would form the core of the Matter of France, a distinct corpus of medieval poetic material contrasted with that based on classical myth, understood as the Matter of Rome, and the Arthurian legends of the Matter of Britain.

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Gutenberg: The Song of Roland, translated by C.K. Scott-Moncrieff. HTML, EPUB, MOBI and TXT formats.
Gutenberg: La Chanson de Roland, translated by Léonce Rabillon. HTML, EPUB, MOBI and TXT formats.
Gutenberg: The Harvard Classics, Volume 49, Epic and Saga - The Song of Roland/The Destruction of Dá Derga's Hostel. HTML, EPUB, MOBI and TXT formats.
Internet Archive: The Song of Roland, translated by C.K. Scott-Moncrieff, with an introduction by G.K. Chesterton. EPUB, MOBI, PDF and TXT formats.
Internet Archive: The Song of Roland, translated by Richard Bacon. EPUB, MOBI, PDF and TXT formats.
University of Adelaide: The Song of Roland, translated by C.K. Scott-Moncrieff. HTML, EPUB, and MOBI formats.
Wikisource: The Song of Roland, translated by C.K. Scott-Moncrieff (incomplete). HTML and other formats.

French texts
Wikisource: La Chanson de Roland. Multiple texts. HTML and other formats.

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Milton: Areopagitica

Areopagitica_1644bw_gobeirneAreopagitica is a 1644 polemical essay by the poet John Milton arguing for freedom of the press. Written early in the English Civil War, at a moment when Parliament had broken the authority of Charles I's controls on publishing, it was unsuccessful in dissuading the dominant Presbyterian faction from instituting its own censorship. It nevertheless became a formative influence on later arguments for freedom of speech in the  liberal tradition.

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Dartmouth College: Areopagitica. HTML format.

Gutenberg: Areopagitica. HTML, EPUB, Kindle and TXT formats.

Internet Archive. English Minor Poems, Paradise Lost, Samson Agonistes, Areopagitica. Britannica Great Books edition. EPUB, TXT, MOBI and PDF formats.

Internet Archive. Areopagitica. Clarendon (1894) with notes by John W. Hales. EPUB, TXT, MOBI and PDF formats.

Internet Archive: Essays Civil and Moral and The New Atlantis by Francis Bacon, Areopagitica and Tractate on Education by John Milton and Religio Medici by Thomas Brown. Harvard Classics, Vol 3. EPUB, TXT, MOBI and PDF formats.

University of Adelaide: Areopagitica. PDF, EPUB, TXT and Kindle formats.

Wikisource: Areopagitica. HTML and other formats. See also Harvard Classics edition.

Other Resources

Librivox: Areopagitica | Areopagitica (version 2) - public domain audiobooks.

Wikipedia: John Milton - Areopagitica

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Euripides: The Suppliants - quoted at the start of the text.

Isocrates: Areopagitikos - the inspiration for the title of Milton's work.

John Aubrey: Brief Lives - includes a life of Milton.

Harold Bloom's Western Canon: includes the Areopagitica.


Francis Bacon: New Atlantis

Truth-timeNew Atlantis is an unfinished utopian novel by Francis Bacon (1561-1626). It is presented as the account of a group of sailors shipwrecked on the coast of Bensalem, a mythical island somewhere to the west of Peru. The description of Bensalem's institutions, notably the 'House of Salomon', allows Bacon to set out his ideas for the organisation of a scientific research university, a vision which had some influence on the development of the Royal Society during the seventeenth century.

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Biblioteca Augustana: Nova Atlantis. Latin text. HTML format.

Gutenberg: New Atlantis. Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: The Advancement of Learning and New Atlantis. (Oxford, 1906). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Essays Civil and Moral and The New Atlantis by Francis Bacon, Areopagitica and Tractate on Education by John Milton and Religio Medici by Thomas Brown. Harvard Classics, Vol 3. EPUB, TXT, MOBI and PDF formats.

Online Library of Liberty: Ideal Empires and Republics. Rousseau’s Social Contract, More’s Utopia, Bacon’s New Atlantis, Campanella’s City of the Sun, with an Introduction by Charles M. Andrews (1901). Multiple formats.

Wikisource: New Atlantis, Harvard Classics edition. HTML and other formats.

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Francis Bacon: Essays

Francis_Bacon _Viscount_St_Alban_from_NPGThe Essays by Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) were the first published work of the English statesman and thinker, appearing in 1597, with revised and expanded editions in 1612 and 1625. In introducing the essay format by pioneered by Montaigne to English, Bacon gave the genre a pointed, business-like concision, perhaps more reminiscent of Machiavelli. In this he was aided by a talent for the telling aphorism that has left a permanent mark on the language.

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Bartleby: Essays, Civil and Moral. Harvard Classics edition. HTML format.

Francis Bacon Online: The Essays. HTML format.

Gutenberg: The Essays or Counsels, Civil and Moral. Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: The essaies of Sr. Francis Bacon. 1613 edition. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Essays, or Counsels Civil and Moral, edited by A.S. Gaye (1911). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Bacon's Essays, edited by Sydney Humphries (1912). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Essays, Civil and Moral and The New Atlantis, by Francis Bacon; Areopagitica and Tractate on Education by John Milton; Religio Medici, by Sir Thomas Brown, edited by Charles W. Eliot (1912). Harvard Classics edition. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Essays, Colours Of Good And Evil, Advancement Of Learning, edited by A.W. Pollard (1920). Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: The Essays, Multiple formats.

Wikisource: The Essays of Francis Bacon, edited by Mary Augusta Scott (1908). HTML and other formats.

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Dante: The Divine Comedy

Domenico di Michelino, La Divina Commedia di Dante (Dante and the Divine Comedy). 1465 fresco, in the dome of the church of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. Wikipedia.The Divine Comedy (Italian: Divina Commedia) is a poem by Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). In three canticles; Inferno, Purgatorio and Paradiso, it describes Dante's progress on a mystic journey, through hell and purgatory, escorted by the poet Virgil, and through Heaven guided by Beatrice, an idealised portrait of the historical Florentine woman who was the object of Dante's unrequited love.

The poem is generally considered one of the central works of western literature. It gave profound expression of the medieval worldview, in an educated vernacular which would pave the way for renaissance humanism. Itself densely allusive, the work has inspired poets, painters and artists of all kinds ever since.

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Danteonline.it: Commedia. Italian text. HTML format.

Dartmouth College: DanteLab - a customisable digital reader.

Gutenberg: The Divine Comedy, translated by H.F. Cary. Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: The Divine Comedy, translated by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.  Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: The Divine Comedy, translated by Charles Eliot Norton. Vol I. Hell | Vol. II Purgatory | Vol III Paradise. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri, translated by Henry F. Cary. Harvard Classics Edition. Multiple formats.

ItalianStudies.org: The Divine Comedy, translated by James Finn Cotter. HTML format.

Online Library of Liberty: The Divine Comedy, Italian text and English translation by Courtney Langdon. Multiple formats.

Poetry in Translation: The Divine Comedy, prose translation by A.S. Kline. Multiple formats.

Sacred Texts: The Divine Comedy -  Italian textEnglish translation by H.F. Cary (1888). TXT format.

University of Adelaide: The Divine Comedy - The Vision of Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, translated by Henry Francis Cary; illustrated by Gustave Doré. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Divina Commedia - Italian text, multiple formats. Divine Comedy, translated by Longfellow. HTML and other formats.

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Marcus Aurelius: The Meditations

The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius are a series of private reflections, written in Greek by the Roman Emperor for his own use, partly while on campaign defending the empire's Northern frontiers. Although not a work of theoretical philosophy, the twelve books of the Meditations are deeply influenced by stoic ethics. The contrast between Marcus Aurelius, perhaps the closest approach to the Platonic ideal of the philosopher-king, and his influential precursor, the freed slave Epictetus, has often been taken to exemplify the indifference of the Stoic ideal to external fortune.

The Meditations at Amazon

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Gutenberg: The Meditations. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Harvard Classics, Volume 2. Plato, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius. The Apology, Crito and Phaedo, by Plato. The Golden Sayings by Epictetus. The Meditations by Marcus Aurelius. EPUB, MOBI, TXT & PDF formats.

LoebulusL058 - Marcus Aurelius -- Communings with Himself of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Emperor of Rome. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

University of Adelaide: The Meditations, translated by George Long. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: The Thoughts Of The Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, translated by George Long (1862). Multiple formats. 

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Stoicism - radio discussion with Melvyn Bragg, Angie Hobbs, Jonathan Rée and David Sedley.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: The Philosopher King: Marcus Aurelius - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Marcus Aurelius, by John Sellars.

Librivox: The Meditations - public domain audiobook.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Marcus Aurelius.

Wikipedia: Meditations

The Meditations at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes.

Arrian: The Discourses and The Enchiridion of Epictetus - a key influence on the Stoic philosophy of the Meditations.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Plato: Phaedo

The Death of Socrates, by Jacques-Louis David (1787)The Phaedo (Greek: Φαίδων) is a dialogue by Plato, portraying the death of Socrates, following the events described in the Euthyphro, Apology and Crito. After the death-sentence of the Athenian courts, Socrates spends his final hours in conversation with his companions, making a series of arguments for the immortality of the soul, before accepting death by a cup of poisonous hemlock.

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Free Online Texts

Gutenberg: Phaedo by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Harvard Classics, Volume 2. Plato, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius. The Apology, Crito and Phaedo, by Plato. The Golden Sayings by Epictetus. The Meditations by Marcus Aurelius. EPUB, MOBI, TXT & PDF formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Phaedo. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus. L036 - Plato -- Euthyphro. Apology. Crito. Phaedo. Phaedrus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek Text, edited by John Burnet (1903). English text, translated by Harold North Fowler (1966). HTML and XML formats

Other Resources

Approaching Plato: A Guide to the Early and Middle Dialogues

Dale E. Burrington: Guides to the Socratic Dialogues.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Famous Last Words: Plato's Phaedo - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Phaedo, by Tim Connolly.

Librivox: Phaedo, public domain audiobook.

PhilPapers: Plato- Phaedo - open access papers.

Youtube: The Death of Socrates - play by Jonathan Miller adapted from the Crito and Phaedo.

YouTube: History of Ancient Philosophy - Plato's Phaedo Part I | Part II. Lectures by Adam Rosenfeld.

The Great Conversation: Further Reading at Tom's Learning Notes.

Plato: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito

Aristotle: On the Soul (De Anima).

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: The Dialogues are listed.


Plato: Crito

 

The Crito (Greek: Κρίτων) is the third in the sequence of Platonic dialogues set during the period of Socrates' trial and death, portraying events after the Euthyphro and Apology and before the Phaedo. It centres on the attempt by Crito to persuade Socrates to escape, which provides the occasion for a discussion of the nature of justice and of the citizen's relationship to the state. in seeking to convince Crito of his obligations to the city, Socrates puts forward an early instance of social contract theory.

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Free Online Texts

Bacchicstage: Plato's Crito. Translated by George Theodoridis (2015). English online text.

Gutenberg: Crito by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, multiple formats.

Loebulus. L036 - Plato -- Euthyphro. Apology. Crito. Phaedo. Phaedrus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Internet Archive: The Harvard Classics, Volume 2. Plato, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius. The Apology, Crito and Phaedo, by Plato. The Golden Sayings by Epictetus. The Meditations by Marcus Aurelius. EPUB, MOBI, TXT & PDF formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Crito, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Online text.

Perseus: Greek text, edited by John Burnet (Oxford, 1903). English text, translated by H.N Fowler (Harvard/Heinemann, 1966). HTML and XML formats.

Social Science Network: Crito (Woods and Pack 2016). English pdf.

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Plato: Apology

Plato's Apology of Socrates (Greek: Ἀπολογία Σωκράτους, Apologia Sokratous, Latin: Apologia Socratis) is an account of Socrates' defence at his trial at Athens in 399 BC for 'corrupting the young'. Like Xenophon's Apology, an otherwise rather different version of the same events, Plato's account makes clear that Socrates did not go out if his way to avoid the death penalty.

Instead, he sought to challenge his prosecutors as the bearer of what has become known as 'Socratic wisdom', the wisest man in Athens, because he knew how little he knew, while others were ignorant even of their own ignorance. In portraying this role as a divine mission, imposed upon him by a 'daimonion', he perhaps assisted his prosecutors in convicting him of impiety.

The Apology is a key text for understanding the Socratic tradition and therefore the origins of Western philosophy as a whole. It is also relatively short, and is often amongst the first works tackled by students of Plato. Since ancient times, it has been read as part of the sequence Euthyphro, Apology, Crito and Phaedo, portraying the events leading up to Socrates' death.

The Apology at Amazon.

Free Online Texts

Bacchicstage: Plato's Apology, translated by George Theodoridis, 2015. online text.

Gutenberg: Apology, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: Apology, Crito, and Phaedo of Socrates by Plato, translated by Henry Carey, multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Harvard Classics, Volume 2. Plato, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius. The Apology, Crito and Phaedo, by Plato. The Golden Sayings by Epictetus. The Meditations by Marcus Aurelius. EPUB, MOBI, TXT & PDF formats.

Loebulus. L036 - Plato -- Euthyphro. Apology. Crito. Phaedo. Phaedrus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Social Science Research Network: Socrates' Defence, (Woods and Pack 2016). English pdf.

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