German Idealism

Hegel: The Phenomenology of Mind

Hegel and Napoelon in Jena. Harper's Magazine, via Wikisource.

The Phenomenology of Mind or Phenomenology of Spirit (German: Phänomenologie des Geistes),  originally published in 1807, was the first major philosophical work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and still the most influential.

Like much of Hegel's writing, it is notoriously difficult, but can be described as an account of the necessary steps in the development of thought. It's description of the relationship between self and other is significant for establishing the irreducibly social nature of consciousness.

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Free online texts


Internet Archive: The Phenomenology of Mind, Vol 1 | Vol 2, translated by J. B. Baillie. EPUB, MOBI, TXT and PDF formats.

Marxists Internet Archive: Hegel's Phenomenology of Mind, translated by Terry Pinkard.

University of Adelaide/Internet Archive: The Phenomenology of Mind, translated by J.B. Baillie. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: The Phenomenology of Mind, translated by James Black Baillie. Currently introduction only. HTML and other formats.

German texts

Deutsches Textarchiv: Die Phänomenologie des Geistes. HTML, Text, XML formats.

Gutenberg: Phänomenologie des Geistes. EPUB, HTML, MOBI and PDF  formats.

Internet Archive: System der Wissenschaft - Erster Theil, die Phänomenologie des Geistes. EPUB, MOBI, PDF and TXT formats.

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Kant: The Critique of Pure Reason

Immanuel_Kant_(painted_portrait)The Critique of Pure Reason (German: Kritik der reinen Vernunft), often known as the First Critique, is a 1781 work by Immanuel Kant. It is a foundational text of modern Western philosophy, proposing a 'Copernican turn' in the approach to central questions posed by previous thinkers. Rather than assuming that the mind must conform to its objects, Kant posited that objects must conform to our minds. Objects must conform to the conditions of possible experience to be experienced at all, and so we can know that they will conform to them, but that knowledge does not extend beyond our experience, to things as they are in themselves, limiting our ability to make many traditional metaphysical claims.

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Free online texts

English translations

Early Modern Texts: The Critique of Pure Reason, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Gutenberg: The Critique of Pure Reason. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Critique of Pure Reason, translated by J.M.D. Meiklejohn (Everyman's Library edition, 1934). Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Critique of Pure Reason, translated by J.M.D. Meiklejohn. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Multiple English translations including J.M.D. Meiklejohn, F. Max Müller and Norman Kemp Smith. HTML and other formats.

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