Ethics

Cicero: On the Ends of Good and Evil

On the Ends of Good and Evil or On Moral Ends (Latin: De finibus bonorum et malorum), composed by Cicero in 45 BC, presents the ethical teachings of the major philosophical schools of the time in the form of dialogues recounted by Cicero to his friend Brutus. Lucius Torquatus serves as spokesman for epicureanism in the first two books, while Cato represents stoicism in books three and four. Book five presents Cicero's own academic skepticism.

On the Ends of Good and Evil at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Academic Questions, Treatise De Finibus, and Tusculan Disputations. Multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: de Finibus, translated by H. Harris Rackham. HTML format.

Latin Library: De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L040 - Cicero -- De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin with English translation by H. Rackham. Also at the Internet Archive.

Perseus: De finibus bonorum et malorum (Teubner, 1915). Latin text, HTML and XML format.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Treatise de Finibus, translated by Charles Duke Yonge. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: De finibus bonorum et malorum. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Cicero.

Librivox: On the Ends of Good and Evil - public domain audiobook.

The Obstinate Classicist: On Moral Ends, summary by Bill Prueter.

Wikipedia: CiceroDe finibus bonorum et malorum.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero: Academica - dialogue on stoic and academic views of the theory of knowledge.

Cicero: Tusculan Disputations.

Plato: Phaedrus - cited by Cicero in Book Two.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Theophrastus: On Characters

The Characters (Ἠθικοὶ χαρακτῆρες), attributed to Theophrastus, is a collection of character sketches each illustrating some vice, often a vice of excess or deficiency, in line with Aristotle's doctrine of the mean, which suggests that virtue is a middle way between extremes. The work provides a valuable insight into the manners of late classical Athens. It has been suggested that the Characters was an influence on Theophrastus' pupil, the comic playwright Menander.

The Characters at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

An Eudaemonist: The Characters of Theophrastus, translated by R.C Jebb (1870). HTML format.

Loebulus. L225N - Theophrastus -- Characters of Theophrastus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Μικρός Απόπλους: ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡΕΣ, Greek text. HTML format.

Perseus: Greek text, edited by H. Diels (Oxford, 1909).

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: The Next Generation: the Followers of Plato and Aristotle - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Simon Fraser University: Theophrastus Project.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Theophrastus, by Katerina Ierodiakonou

Wikipedia: Theophrastus

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics.

Aristotle (attributed): On Virtues and Vices.

Aristotle: The Poetics.

Menander: Dyskolos.

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Aristotle (attributed): On Virtues and Vices

On Virtues and Vices (Greek: Περὶ Ἀρετῶν καὶ Κακιῶν; Latin: De Virtutibus et Vitiis Libellus) is a short ethical treatise once thought to be by Aristotle, but now more usually thought to be the work of a later follower.

On Virtues and Vices at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France 

Free online  texts

Internet Archive: The Works of Aristotle - Magna Moralia, Ethica Eudemia, De Virtutibus Et Vitiis. English translations, edited by W.D. Ross. Multiple formats.

Loebulus. L285 - Aristotle -- Athenian Constitution. Eudemian Ethics. Virtues and Vices. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text (ed. Bekker, 1831). English text, translated by H. Rackham. HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: Περί Αρετών και Κακιών - Greek text. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

Wikipedia: On Virtues and Vices.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aristotle: The Nicomachean Ethics.

Aristotle: The Eudemian Ethics.

Aristotle (attributed): The Magna Moralia.

Theophrastus: The Characters.

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Aristotle (attributed): The Magna Moralia

The Magna Moralia or Great Ethics is a treatise traditionally attributed to Aristotle, but now more often thought to be by a later writer in the Aristotelian tradition.

The Magna Moralia at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: The Works of Aristotle - Magna Moralia, Ethica Eudemia, De Virtutibus Et Vitiis. English translations, edited by W.D. Ross (1915). Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Ηθικά Μεγάλα, Greek text.

Other Resources

Librivox: Magna Moralia, public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: Magna Moralia.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics.

Aristotle: Eudemian Ethics.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Augustine: The Confessions

The Confessions (Latin: Confessiones) is a work by St Augustine, written between 397 and 400 CE, recounting his conversion to Christianity. It is often regarded as founding the genre of autobiography.

The Confessions at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Christian Classics Ethereal Library: The Confessions and Letters of St. Augustine, with a Sketch of his Life and Work. Confessions translated by J.G. Pilkington. Multiple formats.

Georgetown University: The Confessions of Augustine - An Electronic Edition. Latin text with commentary by James J. O'Donnell. HTML format.

Georgetown University: Augustine's Confessions, translated by E.B. Pusey. TXT format.

Gutenberg: The Confessions of St Augustine. Multiple formats.

Latin Library: Augustine of Hippo, Latin texts.

Loebulus. L026 - Augustine -- Confessions I: Books 1-8. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Loebulus. L027 - Augustine -- Confessions II: Books 9-13. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Confessions, translated by E.B. Pusey. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: Confessions, translated by Albert Outler. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Confessions, translated by J.G. Pilkington. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: Augustine's Confessions. Melvyn Bragg with Kate Cooper, Morwenna Ludlow and Martin Palmer.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Life and Time: Augustine's Confessions - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

PhilPapers: Augustine - bibliography with open access option.

Wikipedia: Confessions (Augustine).

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Augustine: The City of God.

Cicero: Hortensius.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: The Confessions is listed.


Cicero: Academica

Richard_Wilson_-_Cicero's_Villa_and_the_Gulf_of_Pozzuoli_-_Google_Art_ProjectThe Academica is Cicero's main philosophical work on the theory of knowledge. The first edition, the Academica Priora, consisted of two books, the dialogues Catulus and Lucullus, of which only the latter is extant. Lucullus defends the stoic position on the possibility of certain knowledge, which Cicero argues takes the view of the academic sceptics that it is necessary to accept what is merely probable.

Part of a revised version, the Academica Posteriora,  in which Varro replaced Lucullus as the main interlocutor, also survives.

The Academica at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Academica. Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: The Academic Questions, Treatise De Finibus, and Tusculan Disputations. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: De natura deorum; Academica; with an English translation by H. Rackham (1933). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Academica of Cicero. Latin text, edited by James Smith Reid. Multiple formats.

Loebulus. L268 - Cicero -- De Natura Deorum. Academica. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Academic Questions, translated by Charles Duke Yonge. EPUB, HTML and MOBI format.

Wikisource: Academica Priora - Latin text. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Cicero: Academic Skepticism, by Harald Thorsrud.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Sextus Empiricus: Outlines of Pyrrhonism - main source for the Pyrrhonist school which propounded a rival form of scepticism to that of the Academics.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Aristotle: The Eudemian Ethics

The Eudemian Ethics (Greek: Ἠθικὰ Εὐδήμεια; Latin: Ethica Eudemia) is a treatise by Aristotle, which overlaps in some places with the longer and better known Nicomachean Ethics. it does, however, consider some virtues that Aristotle does not discuss elsewhere.

The Eudemian Ethics at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: The Works of Aristotle - Magna Moralia, Ethica Eudemia, De Virtutibus Et Vitiis. English translations, edited by W.D. Ross. Multiple formats.

Loebulus. L285 - Aristotle -- Athenian Constitution. Eudemian Ethics. Virtues and Vices. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text (Teubner, 1884). English text, translated by H. Rackham. HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: Ἠθικὰ Εὐδήμεια, Greek text (Teubner, 1884). Eudemian Ethics, English translation by Joseph Solomon (1915). Multiple formats.

Other Resources

Librivox: Eudemian Ethics - public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: Eudemian Ethics.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Arrian: The Discourses of Epictetus

The Discourses of Epictetus (Greek: Ἐπικτήτου διατριβαί) are an account of the oral teachings of the 2nd century Stoic philosopher recorded by his pupil, Arrian.

 The Discourses at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Free online texts

Internet Archive: The discourses of Epictetus with the Encheiridion and Fragments, translated by George Long (1890).

Internet Archive: The discourses and manual, together with fragments of his writings, translated by P. E. Matheson (1916).

Internet Archive: The Moral Discourses of Epictetus, translated by Elizabeth Carter.

Loebulus. L131 - Epictetus -- Discourses, Books 1-2. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Loebulus. L218 - Epictetus -- Discourses, Books 3-4. Fragments. The Encheiridion. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text (Teubner 1916). English text, translated by George Long (1890).

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Discourses of Epictetus, translated by George Long. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: Greek text

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Stoicism - radio discussion with Melvyn Bragg, Angie Hobbs, Jonathan Rée and David Sedley.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: You Can Chain My Leg: Epictetus - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epictetus.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epictetus.

Wikipedia: The Discourses of Epictetus.

 The Discourses at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes.

The Enchiridion - A shorter compilation of Epictetus' moral teachings by Arrian.

The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius - a self-examination along Stoic lines of a kind recommended by Epictetus.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Arrian: The Enchiridion of Epictetus

The Enchiridion or Manual of Epictetus is a short compilation of the ethical teachings of the 2nd century Stoic philosopher by his pupil, the writer and historian Arrian.

The Enchiridion at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Free online texts

Internet Archive: The discourses of Epictetus with the Encheiridion and Fragments, translated by George Long (1890).

Internet Archive: The discourses and manual, together with fragments of his writings, translated by P. E. Matheson (1916).

Loebulus. L218 - Discourses, Books 3-4. Fragments. The Encheiridion. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text. English text, translated by George Long.

Wikisource: The Enchiridion. Greek textEnglish text, translated by George Long.

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Stoicism - radio discussion with Melvyn Bragg, Angie Hobbs, Jonathan Rée and David Sedley.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: You Can Chain My Leg: Epictetus - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epictetus.

Librivox: The Enchiridion - public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epictetus.

Wikipedia: Enchiridion of Epictetus.

The Enchiridion at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes.

The Discourses of Epictetus - Another, more extended account of his master's teachings by Arrian.

The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius - a self-examination along the stoic lines recommended by Epictetus.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

 


Marcus Aurelius: The Meditations

The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius are a series of private reflections, written in Greek by the Roman Emperor for his own use, partly while on campaign defending the empire's Northern frontiers. Although not a work of theoretical philosophy, the twelve books of the Meditations are deeply influenced by stoic ethics. The contrast between Marcus Aurelius, perhaps the closest approach to the Platonic ideal of the philosopher-king, and his influential precursor, the freed slave Epictetus, has often been taken to exemplify the indifference of the Stoic ideal to external fortune.

The Meditations at Amazon

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Meditations. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Harvard Classics, Volume 2. Plato, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius. The Apology, Crito and Phaedo, by Plato. The Golden Sayings by Epictetus. The Meditations by Marcus Aurelius. EPUB, MOBI, TXT & PDF formats.

LoebulusL058 - Marcus Aurelius -- Communings with Himself of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Emperor of Rome. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

University of Adelaide: The Meditations, translated by George Long. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: The Thoughts Of The Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, translated by George Long (1862). Multiple formats. 

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Stoicism - radio discussion with Melvyn Bragg, Angie Hobbs, Jonathan Rée and David Sedley.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: The Philosopher King: Marcus Aurelius - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Marcus Aurelius, by John Sellars.

Librivox: The Meditations - public domain audiobook.

Literature and History: Episode 74 - Marcus Aurelius. Podcast by Doug Metzger.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Marcus Aurelius.

Wikipedia: Meditations

The Meditations at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes.

Arrian: The Discourses and The Enchiridion of Epictetus - a key influence on the Stoic philosophy of the Meditations.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.