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Spinoza: The Ethics

SpinozaEthics, Demonstrated in Geometrical Order (Latin: Ethica, ordine geometrico demonstrata), is a Latin philosophical treatise by Baruch Spinoza, written in around 1664-5 and published shortly after Spinoza's death in 1677.

Spinoza presents his argument as a series of propositions, derived logically from a small number of axioms after the manner of Euclidean geometry. His system is monistic, in that posits reality as consisting of a single substance, and pantheistic in that identifies this substance with God.

Spinoza's conception of God is, however, sufficiently abstract that his thought has often been equated with atheism. This was for a long time a source of huge opprobrium, which meant that his influence on the radical enlightment of the seventeenth and eightenth centuries was largely subterranean. Since then, influence in his work has consistently grown. Among his twentieth century admirers was Albert Einstein who once said that he believed in Spinoza's God 'who reveals himself in the lawful harmony of the world, not in a God who concerns himself with the fate and the doings of mankind.'

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Free online texts

Bibliotheca Augustana: Ethica Ordine Geometrica Demonstrata. Latin text, HTML format.

Early Modern Texts: Ethics Demonstrated in Geometrical Order, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

EthicaDB: The Ethics. Translations in multiple European languages. HTML format.

Gutenberg: Ethics, translated by R.H.M. Elwes. Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: Improvement of the Understanding, Ethics and Correspondence, translated by R.H.M. Elwes. Multiple formats.

Middle Tennessee State University: Ethics, translated by RH.M. Elwes. HTML format.

SpinozaBase: Ethica. Latin text. HTML format.

Wikisource: Latin text and English translation by R.H.M. Elwes. HTML and other formats.

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Spinoza: The Theologico-Political Treatise

Saul_and_David_rembrandtThe Theologico-Political Treatise (Latin: Tractatus Theologico-Politicus) by Baruch Spinoza is an analysis of the Hebrew Bible published anonymously in Latin in 1670. Intended to vindicate political freedom against encroachments based on religious authority, its interpretation owed much to contemporary Hobbesian political theory. While extremely controversial in its own day, it was an important influence on later biblical criticism.

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Free online texts

Early Modern Texts: Treatise on Theology and Politics, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Constitutional Society: Selected Political Works of Baruch de Spinoza. HTML and text formats.

Gutenberg: Theologico-Political Treatise - Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 - translated by R.H.M. Elwes. Multiple formats for parts 1 & 2, RDF for parts 3 & 4.

Internet Archive: The Chief Works of Benedict de Spinoza, Vol I, translated by R.H.M Elwes. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Theologico-Political Treatise. Latin text. Multiple formats.

Spinoza et Nouse: Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. Latin text. HTML format.

Wikisource: Theologico-Political Treatise, translated by Robert Willis. HTML and other formats.

Wikisource: Theologico-Political Treatise, translated by R.H. Elwes. (Currently incomplete, with only first part transcribed). HTML and other formats.

Yesselman.com: Theologico-Political Treatise, translated by RH. Elwes. HTML format.

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