Cicero

Cicero: Philippics

The Philippics (Latin: Philippicae) are a series of speeches delivered by Cicero in 44-43 BCE attacking Mark Anthony. Their name reflects the fact that they were modelled on speeches of the great Athenian orator Demosthenes against King Philip of Macedon in the 4th Century BCE.

The Philippics were delivered in the period following the assassination of Julius Caesar, when Cicero emerged as a leader of the senatorial party, despite his exclusion from the assassination plot itself. Several of the speeches sought to exploit the emergence of Octavian as a potential rival to Mark Anthony for leadership of the Caesarian party. However, after Octavian and Mark Anthony formed the second triumvirate, Anthony insisted on Cicero's inclusion in the  proscriptions being drawn up against their political opponents. When Cicero was caught and executed, Anthony notoriously ordered the hands that wrote the Philippics cut off.

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Free online texts

Internet Archive: Philippics, translated by Walter Ker. Multiple formats, Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Latin Library: Philippicae. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L189 - Cicero - Philippics. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: The fourteen orations against Marcus Antonius (Philippics), translated by C. D. Yonge (1903). HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: In M. Antonium Philippicae. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

Librivox: The Philippics - public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: Cicero - Philippicae.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero on Rhetoric

Orator - Brutus - On the Orator.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Cicero: Letters to Quintus

The Letters to Quintus (Latin: Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem) is a collection of letters from the Roman writer and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero to his brother Quintus, written mainly between 59 and 54 BCE. Some editions of the collection include a letter from Quintus On Running for the Consulship (Latin: De petitione consulatus).

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Free online texts

Latin Library: Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L230N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends III: Books 13-16. To His Brother Quintus. To Brutus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Letters to and from Quintus. Latin text and English translation by Evelyn Shuckburgh (1908). HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem. Latin text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: Letters to his Brother Quintus, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh (1900). Multiple formats.

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Cicero: Letters to Friends

The Letters to Friends (Latin: Epistulae ad Familiares) is a collection of letters from the Roman writer and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero to various friends and relations, published by Cicero's secretary Tiro. Their rediscovery in the fourteenth century had  significant impact on renaissance humanism.

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Free online texts

Latin Library: Epistulae ad FamiliaresLatin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L205N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends I: Books 1-6. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.
Loebulus. L216N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends II: Books 7-12. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.
Loebulus. L230N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends III: Books 13-16. To His Brother Quintus. To Brutus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Epistulae ad Familiares. Latin text, HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: Epistulae ad Familiares. Partial Latin text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: Letters to Friends, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh (1900). Multiple formats.

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Cicero: Letters to Brutus

The Letters to Brutus (Latin: Epistulae ad Brutum) is a collection of letters from the Roman statesman and writer Marcus Tullius Cicero to Marcus Junius Brutus, the assassin of Julius Caesar. It features some 25 letters written in 43 BC, a year after Caesar's death and a year before Brutus' own suicide following the battle of Philippi.

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 Free online texts

Latin Library: Epistulae ad Brutum. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L230N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends III: Books 13-16. To His Brother Quintus. To Brutus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Letters to and from Brutus. Latin text, HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: Epistulae ad Brutum. Latin text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: Letters to Brutus, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh (1900). Multiple formats.

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Cicero: Letters to Atticus

The Letters to Atticus (Latin: Epistulae ad Atticum) is a collection of correspondence between Cicero and his close friend Atticus, covering the period between 68 and 43 BCE. When the collection was rediscovered in Verona in 1345, the great renaissance humanist Petrarch was scandalised by their revelations of Cicero's personality. Together with Cicero's other letters they provide one of the most remarkable insights into the life of any individual from the ancient world.

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 Free online texts

Latin Library: Epistulae ad Atticum. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L007N - Cicero -- Letters to Atticus I. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.
Loebulus. L008N - Cicero -- Letters to Atticus II. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.
Loebulus. L097N - Cicero -- Letters to Atticus III. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Letters to Atticus. Latin text, HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: Epistulae ad Atticum. Latin text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: Letters to Atticus, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh (1900). Multiple formats.

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Cicero: On Duties

On Duties or On Obligations (Latin: De Officiis) is Cicero's last work on ethics, addressed to his son Marcus, who was studying philosophy in Athens at the time of its completion in 44 BCE. It draws heavily on the work of two Stoic philosophers; Panaetius, who had written his own lost work, and Posidonius, a student of Panaetius, who had himself taught Cicero. Despite these Stoic influences, Cicero strongly defended the value of political activity. 

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Free online texts

Gutenberg: De Officiis, multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: De Officiis, translated by Walter Miller (1913). HTML format.

Latin Library: De Officiis. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L030 - Cicero -- De Officiis. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: De Officiis. Latin text, HTML and XML format.

Perseus: De Officiis, translated by Walter Miller (1913). HTML and XML format.

Stoics.com: De Officiis, translated by Walter Miller (1913). HTML format.

Wikisource: De Officiis. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Librivox: On Duties - public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: CiceroDe Officiis.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero: Tusculan Disputations - defends Stoic views on happiness.

Cicero: On the Ends of Good and Evil - examines the ethical teachings of the major philosophical schools.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Cicero: On Friendship

On Friendship (Latin: Laelius de Amicitia) is a dialogue by Cicero, which argues that true friendship is founded on virtue. It was completed in 44 BCE and set in 129 BC in the period following the death of Scipio Aemilianus around 129 BC. The speakers are Scipio's friend Laelius, and his two sons-in-law, Fannius and Scaevola, the latter of whom taught Cicero law.

On Friendship at Amazon: United States.

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Treatises on Friendship and Old Age by Marcus Tullius Cicero, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh. Multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: Cicero on Friendship, translated by W.A. Falconer (1923). HTML format.

Latin Library: Laelius de AmicitiaLatin text, HTML format.

Perseus: De Amicitia. Latin text, HTML and XML formats.

Perseus: Laelius on Friendship, translated by W.A. Falconer (1923). HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: Laelius on Friendship. Latin text with facing English translation, multiple formats.

Wikisource: Laelius de Amicitia. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Cicero.

Wikipedia: Cicero - Laelius de Amicitia.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Cicero: On Old Age

On Old Age (Latin De Senectute or Cato Maior de Senectute) is a dialogue by Cicero, written about 44 BC, and set a century earlier. The aged Cato the Censor is portrayed in discussion with the younger Scipio Aemilianus and Laelius, expounding his views on dealing with old age, and his belief in the immortality of the soul. The early part of the dialogue is influenced by Plato's portrayal of Cephalus in Book 1 of The Republic.

On Old Age at Amazon: United States.

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Cato Maior de Senectute. Latin text, multiple formats.

Gutenberg: Treatises on Friendship and Old Age by Marcus Tullius Cicero, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh. Multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: Cicero on Old Age, translated by W.A. Falconer (1923). HTML format.

Latin Library: Cato Maior de Senectute. Latin text, HTML format.

Perseus: De Senectute. Latin text, HTML and XML formats.

Perseus: Cato the Elder On Old Age, translated by W.A. Falconer. HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: Cato Maior de Senectute. Latin text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: De Senectute, translated by Andrew P. Peabody (1884). Multiple formats.

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Cicero: On Fate

On Fate (Latin: De Fato) is a partly extant work by Cicero, written in 44 BC, in which he discusses fate and freedom of the will with his friend Aulus Hirtius. Although, ostensibly a dialogue, the extent portions contain long passages of exposition by Cicero. The work appears to be closely connected to On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination.

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Free online texts

Internet Archive: The treatises of M.T. Cicero: On the nature of the gods; On divination; On fate; On the republic; On the laws; and On standing for the consulship. Literally translated chiefly by the editor, C.D. Yonge (1878). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: De natura deorum, De divinatione, De fato, edited by Reinholdus Klotz (1879). Latin text, multiple formats.

Latin Library: De Fato. Latin text, HTML format.

Perseus: De Fato. Latin text, edited by C.F.W. Muller (Teubner, 1915). HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: De Fato. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Cicero.

Wikipedia: Cicero - De Fato.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero: On the Nature of the Gods.

Cicero: On Divination.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Cicero: On Divination

On Divination (Latin: De Divinatione) is a dialogue by Cicero published in 44 BC, shortly after the death of Caesar. Following on from the theological issues considered in On the Nature of the Gods, it examines whether it is possible to predict the future. Cicero's brother Quintus deploys stoic arguments to defend belief in some kinds of divination. Cicero ridicules the practice but recommends the maintenance of traditional forms for political reasons.

On Divination at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: The treatises of M.T. Cicero: On the nature of the gods; On divination; On fate; On the republic; On the laws; and On standing for the consulship. Literally translated chiefly by the editor, C.D. Yonge (1878). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: De natura deorum, De divinatione, De fato, edited by Reinholdus Klotz (1879). Latin text, multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: De Divinatione, translated by W.A. Falconer (1923). HTML format.

Latin Library: De Divinatione. Latin text, HTML format.

Perseus: De Divinatione. Latin text, edited by C.F.W. Muller (Teubner, 1915). HTML and XML formats.

Perseus: De Divinatione. Latin text, edited by W.A. Falconer (1923). HTML and XML formats. 

Perseus: De Divinatione, translated by W.A. Falconer (1923). HTML and XML formats. 

Wikisource: De Divinatione. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

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