The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages, by Harold Bloom is a 1994 book defending the concept of a central canon of Western writers against various modern critical approaches that Bloom characterised as a 'school of resentment'.
The book is perhaps best remembered for an appendix listing central canonical writers, an exercise which Bloom later repudiated. Non-Western works are included only in so far as Bloom recognised their influence on the Western tradition. This leads to the inclusion of a handful of major Indian and Middle Eastern works from the ancient and medieval periods, while Chinese literature is totally excluded.
Modern African and Asian literature is slightly better represented, but Bloom's list is best used with the understanding that it intended to be representative of western culture only and therefore excludes much of what is most valuable in world literature.
An adapted version of Bloom's list is presented below with links to relevant free resources. His recommended translations, mostly still in copyright, are omitted.
The Western Canon at Amazon