Aesthetics

Horace: The Art of Poetry

Adalbert_von_Rössler_HorazThe Art of Poetry (Latin: Ars Poetica) is a poem by Horace, originally included in the second volume of his Epistles, published in 14 BCE and sometimes known as the Epistle to the Pisos (Latin: Epistula ad Pisones).

It's reflections on poetry are personal and a touch satirical, contrasting with earlier extant literary criticism, such as that of Aristotle. It has nevertheless exercised a huge influence through its richness in maxims and pithy phrases, many of which are still in use as common literary terms.

The Art of Poetry at online book stores
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Free online texts
Bilingual texts
Loebulus: L194 - Horace - Satires. Epistles. Ars Poetica. Public domain Loeb edition. PDF format.
English translations
Gutenberg: The Satires, Epistles & Art of Poetry of Horace, translated by John Conington. EPUB, HTML, MOBI and TXT formats.
Gutenberg: The Art of Poetry, translated by George Colman. EPUB, HTML, MOBI and TXT formats.
Internet Archive
Perseus: The Art of Poetry, translated by C. Smart. HTML and XML formats.
Poetry in Translation: Ars Poetica, translated by A.S. Kline (2005). Multiple formats.
University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Works of Horace, translated into English Prose by C. Smart. EPUB, MOBI and HTML formats.
Wikisource: Ars Poetica. Multiple translations. HTML and other formats.
Latin texts
Gutenberg: The Works of Horace. EPUB, HTML, MOBI and TXT formats. 
Latin Library: Ars Poetica. HTML format.
Perseus: De Arte Poetica liber. HTML and XML formats.
Wikisource: Ars Poetica. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources
Librivox: The Ars Poetica and Carmen Saeculare, Dual Latin and English translations. Free public domain audiobook.
Literature and History: Episode 50 - Our Brutal Age. Episode 51 - Horace and Augustan Poetry. Podcast and transcript by Doug Metzger.
Wikipedia: Horace - Ars Poetica (Horace)

Further reading
Horace: Epistles - the larger work of which The Art of Poetry is part.
Homer: The Iliad - while Horace famously acknowledges that there moments when even Homer nods, he nevertheless regards him as the supreme poetic model.
Quintilian: Institutes of Oratory - the first source to treat The Art of Poetry as a separate work.
Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Burke: Philosophical Enquiry on the Origins of the Sublime and Beautiful

Edmund_Burke_by_Sir_Joshua_ReynoldsA Philosophical Enquiry into the Origins of Our Ideas on the Sublime and the Beautiful is a 1757 work by Edmund Burke, with an Introduction on Taste added two years later.

Burke's argument, widely influential in the eighteenth century, sought to establish the distinct nature of two sentiments: the beautiful, characterised as graceful and elegant; and the sublime, characterised as grand and terrible; the former linked to those objects likely to cause pleasure, the latter to those which arouse pain and fear.

The Sublime and the Beautiful at online book stores
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Free online texts
Gutenberg: The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol I. EPUB, HTML, MOBI and TXT formats. 
Internet Archive: On the Sublime and Beatiful, Reflections on the French Revolution, Letter to a Noble Lord. Harvard Classics edition. EPUB, MOBI, PDF and TXT formats.
University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Sublime and the Beautiful. EPUB, MOBI and HTML formats.
Wikisource: On the Sublime and Beautiful. HTML and other formats.

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Pseudo-Longinus: On the Sublime

Zeus_Typhon_Staatliche_Antikensammlungen_596On the Sublime (Greek: Περì Ὕψους Perì Hýpsous) is a work on literary criticism written in Greek at some point during the Roman empire. The manuscript tradition attributes the work to 'Dionsysius or Longinus' and its true provenance has been the subject of much debate.

The concept of the sublime reflects the author's commendation of writing in a grand, elevated style, citing many examples from classical literature. The work is not mentioned by any other ancient writer, but became particularly influential during the eighteenth century.

On the Sublime at online book stores
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Free online texts
English translations
Attalus: On the Sublime, translated by W.H. Fyfe. HTML format.
Gutenberg: On the Sublime. EPUB, HTML, MOBI and TXT formats.
Internet Archive: On the Sublime, translated by H. L. Havell. EPUB, MOBI, PDF and TXT formats.
University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): On the Sublime, translated by W. Rhys Roberts. EPUB, MOBI and HTML formats.
Wikisource: On the Sublime, translated by H. L. Havell. HTML and other formats.
Greek texts
Internet Archive: Aristotle, The Poetics; "Longinus", On the Sublime; Demetrius, On Style. Bilingual Loeb edition. EPUB, MOBI, PDF and TXT formats.
Perseus: De Sublimitate. HTML and XML formats.

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Pliny the Elder: Natural History

The Natural History (Latin: Naturalis Historia) by Pliny the Elder, was dedicated to the Emperor Titus in 77 CE, and published posthumously, following Pliny's death while observing the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE. It is an encyclopedic work, designed to illustrate a philosophical belief in a benign providence, and to assimilate Greek knowledge for the Roman World. Despite a reputation for credulity, the sheer breadth of Pliny's interests make the Natural History a work of lasting value.

Book I provides a summary of contents and list of Roman and foreign authorities cited. Book II focuses on cosmology and physics, while books III-VI cover the geography of the known world. Book VII deals with the human body, Books VIII-XI with animals, Books XII-XIX with botany. The medicinal properties of plants are covered in Books XX-XXVII and of animals in Books XXVIII-XXXII. Books XXXIII-XXXVII examine minerology, with the aesthetic properties of stones providing the occasion for an excursus on art.

The Natural History at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive:  The Natural History of PlinyVol I - Vol II - Vol III - Vol IV - Vol V - Vol VI. Translated by John Bostock and Henry T. Riley (1855-57). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Pliny's Natural History - Vol I - Vol II. Translated by Philemon Holland (1601, printed 1847-48). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Elder Pliny's Chapters on the History of Art, translated by K. Jex-Blake. Multiple formats.

LacusCurtius. Natural History. Latin text, HTML format.

Latin Library: Naturalis Historiae. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L330 - Pliny -- Natural History I: Books 1-2. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.

Loebulus. L352 - Pliny -- Natural History II: Books 3-7. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.

Loebulus. L353 - Pliny -- Natural History III: Books 8-11. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.

Loebulus. L370 - Pliny -- Natural History IV: Books 12-16. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.

Loebulus. L371 - Pliny -- Natural History V: Books 17-19. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.

Loebulus. L392 - Pliny -- Natural History VI: Books 20-23. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.

LoebulusL393 - Pliny -- Natural History VII: Books 24-27. Index of Plants. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.

Loebulus. L418 - Pliny -- Natural History VIII: Books 28-32. Index of Fishes. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.

Loebulus. L394 - Pliny -- Natural History IX: Books 33-35. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.

Perseus: Latin text, edited by K.F.T. Mayhoff (1906). English text, translated by John Bostock (1855).

University of Chicago: The Historie of the World, translated by Philemon Holland (1601). HTML format.

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Pliny's Natural History - Radio programme presented by Melvyn Bragg, with Serafina Cuomo, Aude Doody and Liba Taub.

Librivox: The Natural History -  public domain audiobook.

Livius: Pliny the Elder, Natural History.

Roger Pearse: The manuscripts of Pliny the Elder’s “Natural History.

Wikipedia: Natural History (Pliny).

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Pliny's sources

Pliny is unusual among ancient writers in explicitly citing a copious range of sources. The extant authors mentioned in the summary of the work in Book I include:

Aeschylus - Anacreon - Aristotle - Callimachus - Cato the Elder - Cicero - Columella - Cornelius Nepos - Herodotus - Hesiod - Hippocrates - Homer - Horace - Livy - Menander - Ovid - Pindar - Plautus - Polybius - Pomponius Mela - Seneca - Sophocles - Theophrastus - Thucydides - Varro - Virgil - Vitruvius.

Pliny's contemporaries

Pliny the Younger: Letters.

Tacitus: The Germania - thought to be strongly influenced by Pliny's lost work on the German Wars.

Pliny's influence

Isidore of Seville: Etymologies - An encyclopedic work from late antiquity that relies heavily on Pliny. 


Aristotle: Rhetoric

The Rhetoric (Greek: Ῥητορική; Latin: Ars Rhetorica) by Aristotle is a treatise on the art of persuasion, examining how a public speaker can produce a range of effects, including a favourable impression of his own character, and various emotions, as well as winning assent to arguments. As so often with Aristotle, the Rhetoric was foundational for the discipline, setting the agenda down to early modern times. 

The Rhetoric at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Loebulus. L193 - Aristotle -- The "Art" of Rhetoric. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Internet Archive: The Rhetoric of Aristotle, translated by Richard Claverhouse Jebb (1908). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: The Rhetoric, translated by W. Rhys Roberts. HTML and TXT formats.

Perseus: Greek text, edited by W.D. Ross (1959). English text, translated by J.H. Freese (1926). HTML and XML formats.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Rhetoric, translated by W. Rhys Roberts. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: Rhetoric, multiple translations, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Stage Directions: Aristotle's Rhetoric and Poetics - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Librivox: Rhetoric, public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle's Rhetoric, by Christof Rapp.

The Rhetoric at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato: Gorgias, Phaedrus - Key dialogues on rhetoric.

Aristotle: The Topics, Sophistical Refutations - logical works relevant to art of rhetoric.

Aristotle: The Poetics - his other significant work on aesthetics.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Aristotle: The Poetics

The Poetics (Greek: Περὶ ποιητικῆς, Latin: De Poetica) is a treatise by Aristotle on literary theory. Like many of his other works, it exercised a formative influence on the discipline it examined up to the renaissance.

Aristotle divided poetry into tragedy and comedy and into narrative and dramatic forms. Like Plato, Aristotle saw the essence of art in representation or mimesis. In contrast to the critical view of mimesis in Plato's dialogues, Aristotle's theory of catharsis suggested that tragedy could have a positive effect through purging negative emotions.

The Poetics at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Poetics, translated by S.H. Butcher. Multiple formats.

Perseus: Greek text, ed. by R. Kassel (1966). English text, translated by W.H. Fyfe (1932). HTML and XML formats.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Poetics, translated by S.H. Butcher. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.

Wikisource: Translation by Ingram Bywater (1898). Translation by S.H. Butcher (1922).

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