Chrétien de Troyes: Yvain, the Knight of the Lion
The Nibelungenlied

Wolfram von Eschenbach: Parzival

Hermann_Hendrich_ParsifalParzival by Wolfram Von Eschenbach is a Middle High German Romance completed in the early thirteenth century. Reworking material from Chrétien de Troyes earlier Perceval, Von Eschenbach recounts Parzival's adventures at the court of King Arthur, and his pursuit of the Holy Grail, inspired by his love for Queen Condwiramurs.

Parzival was an important influence on Richard Wagner, inspiring not only his opera Parsifal, but also Lohengrin, whose title character first appears in Von Eschenbach.

Parzival at online book stores
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Free online texts

English translations
Gutenberg: Parzival - a Knightly Epic - Vol 1 | Vol 2, translated by Jessie L. Weston. HTML, EPUB, MOBI and TXT formats.
University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Parzival - a Knightly Epic, translated by Jessie L. Weston. HTML, EPUB and MOBI formats.

German texts
Bibliotheca Augustana: Parzival. HTML format.
University of Heidelberg: Parzival. Digitised manuscript from the Bibliotheca Palatina.

Other Resources
Wikipedia: Wolfram von Eschenbach - Parzival

Further reading
Chrétien de Troyes: Perceval, the Story of the Grail - the Old French source which von Eschenbach adapted.
Wolfram Von Eschebach: Titurel - an unfinished prequel.
Nibelungenlied - quoted in Parzival.
Bloom's Western Canon: Parzival is listed.


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