Berkeley: Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous
Anna Comnena: The Alexiad

Kant: The Critique of Pure Reason

Immanuel_Kant_(painted_portrait)The Critique of Pure Reason (German: Kritik der reinen Vernunft), often known as the First Critique, is a 1781 work by Immanuel Kant. It is a foundational text of modern Western philosophy, proposing a 'Copernican turn' in the approach to central questions posed by previous thinkers. Rather than assuming that the mind must conform to its objects, Kant posited that objects must conform to our minds. Objects must conform to the conditions of possible experience to be experienced at all, and so we can know that they will conform to them, but that knowledge does not extend beyond our experience, to things as they are in themselves, limiting our ability to make many traditional metaphysical claims.

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Free online texts

English translations

Early Modern Texts: The Critique of Pure Reason, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Gutenberg: The Critique of Pure Reason. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Critique of Pure Reason, translated by J.M.D. Meiklejohn (Everyman's Library edition, 1934). Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: The Critique of Pure Reason, translated by J.M.D. Meiklejohn. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Multiple English translations including J.M.D. Meiklejohn, F. Max Müller and Norman Kemp Smith. HTML and other formats.

German texts

Wikisource: Critik der reinen Vernunft. HTML and other formats.

Uni Bonn: Kritik Der Reinen Vernunft (2nd edition, 1787). HTML format.

Internet Archive: Critik Der Reinen Vernunft (3rd edition, 1790). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Critik Der Reinen Vernunft (5th edition, 1799). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Critik Der Reinen Vernunft (7th edition, 1828). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Kritik Der Reinen Vernunft, edited by G. Hartenstein (1868). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Kritik Der Reinen Vernunft, edited by Benno Erdmann (1880). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Kritik Der Reinen Vernunft, edited by Erich Adickes (1889). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Kritik Der Reinen Vernunft, edited by Ludwig Goldschmidt, (1905). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Kritik Der Reinen Vernunft, edited by Theodor Valentiner, (1919). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Kritik Der Reinen Vernunft, edited by Wilhelm Weischedel, (1956). Multiple formats.

University of Duisburg: Kritik Der Reinen Vernunft, 1787 edition (Collected Works, Vol III).  HTML format. Also in multiple formats at the Internet Archive.

University of Duisburg: Kritik Der Reinen Vernunft, 1781 edition. (Collected Works, Vol IV). HTML format. Also in multiple formats at the Internet Archive.

Audio Resources

Librivox: The Critique of Pure Reason - Public domain audiobook

Philosophy - The Classics: The Critique of Pure Reason. Podcast by Nigel Warburton.

Other Resources

Internet Archive: A Commentary to Kant's 'Critique of Pure Reason', by Norman Kemp Smith (1918). Multiple formats.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Immanuel Kant - Kant's Metaphysics - Kant's Philosophy of Mind

PhilPapers: Kant - Critique of Pure Reason - bibliography with open access option.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Immanuel Kant - Kant's Critique of Metaphysics - Kant's Transcendental Arguments - Kant's Account of Reason - Kant and Hume on Causality - Kant's Views on Space and Time.

Wikipedia: Immanuel Kant - Critique of Pure Reason

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

John Locke: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.

Gottfried Leibniz: New Essays Concerning Human Understanding.

George Berkeley: A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous.

David Hume: Treatise on Human Nature and An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding - Kant's Critique was partly inspired by Hume's problem of induction, to which it represents an attempted solution.

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