Leibniz: New Essays on Human Understanding
Leibniz: The Theodicy

Leibniz: The Monadology

Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz _Bernhard_Christoph_FranckeThe Monadology (French: La Monadologie) is a short 1714 text by Leibniz outlining his metaphysics in ninety theses. Opposing the mind-body dualism of Descartes, Leibniz proposed a monistic idealist system in which the universe is made up of simple parts known as monads. These parts cannot directly affect each other. Rather reality is the result of a pre-established harmony between them.

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Free online texts

Early Modern Texts: Monadology, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Gutenberg: Leibnitz' Monadologie. German text, multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: The Monadology and Other Philosophical Writings, translated by Robert Latta (1898). Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): The Monadology, translated by Robert Latta. Multiple formats.

University of California, San Diego (Internet Archive): Monadology, translated by Robert Latta, revised by Donald Rutherford. HTML format.

University of Leeds (Internet Archive): Monadology, translated by George Macdonald Ross (1999). Multiple formats.

Wikisource: French text and multiple translations. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) - Leibniz on Metaphysics - Leibniz on Causation.

Librivox: The Monadology - public domain audiobook.

PhilPapers: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - bibliography with open access option.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Leibniz on Causation.

Wikipedia: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - The Monadology

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Descartes: Discourse on Method and The Meditations.

Voltaire: Candide - a famous satire on Leibniz's optimism.


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