John Locke: Two Treatises of Government
Leibniz: The Monadology

Leibniz: New Essays on Human Understanding

Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz_c1700The New Essays on Human Understanding (French: Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain) by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, is a response to Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, originally completed in French in 1704, but withheld from publication after Locke's death until 1765. 

The New Essays provide a detailed critique of Locke's work in dialogue form, with one speaker Philalethes, defending Locke's position and a second, Theophilus, presenting Leibniz's own views, including a strong defence of the rationalist doctrine of innate ideas.

New Essays on Human Understanding at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Early Modern Texts: New Essays on Human Understanding, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Internet Archive: New Essays Concerning Human Understanding. English translation (1916). Multiple formats.

Wikisource: French text. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

Gutenberg: Leibniz's New Essays Concerning the Human Understanding: A Critical Exposition, by John Dewey (1902).

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) - Leibniz on Metaphysics - Leibniz on Causation.

PhilPapers: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - bibliography with open access option.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - Leibniz on Causation.

Wikipedia: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - New Essays on Human Understanding

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

John Locke: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.


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