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January 2019

Spinoza: The Theologico-Political Treatise

Saul_and_David_rembrandtThe Theologico-Political Treatise (Latin: Tractatus Theologico-Politicus) by Baruch Spinoza is an analysis of the Hebrew Bible published anonymously in Latin in 1670. Intended to vindicate political freedom against encroachments based on religious authority, its interpretation owed much to contemporary Hobbesian political theory. While extremely controversial in its own day, it was an important influence on later biblical criticism.

The Theologico-Political Treatise at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Early Modern Texts: Treatise on Theology and Politics, adapted and translated into modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Constitutional Society: Selected Political Works of Baruch de Spinoza. HTML and text formats.

Gutenberg: Theologico-Political Treatise - Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 - translated by R.H.M. Elwes. Multiple formats for parts 1 & 2, RDF for parts 3 & 4.

Internet Archive: The Chief Works of Benedict de Spinoza, Vol I, translated by R.H.M Elwes. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Theologico-Political Treatise. Latin text. Multiple formats.

Spinoza et Nouse: Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. Latin text. HTML format.

Wikisource: Theologico-Political Treatise, translated by Robert Willis. HTML and other formats.

Wikisource: Theologico-Political Treatise, translated by R.H. Elwes. (Currently incomplete, with only first part transcribed). HTML and other formats.

Yesselman.com: Theologico-Political Treatise, translated by RH. Elwes. HTML format.

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Francis Bacon: New Atlantis

Truth-timeNew Atlantis is an unfinished utopian novel by Francis Bacon (1561-1626). It is presented as the account of a group of sailors shipwrecked on the coast of Bensalem, a mythical island somewhere to the west of Peru. The description of Bensalem's institutions, notably the 'House of Salomon', allows Bacon to set out his ideas for the organisation of a scientific research university, a vision which had some influence on the development of the Royal Society during the seventeenth century.

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Free online texts

Biblioteca Augustana: Nova Atlantis. Latin text. HTML format.

Gutenberg: New Atlantis. Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: The Advancement of Learning and New Atlantis. (Oxford, 1906). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Essays Civil and Moral and The New Atlantis by Francis Bacon, Areopagitica and Tractate on Education by John Milton and Religio Medici by Thomas Brown. Harvard Classics, Vol 3. EPUB, TXT, MOBI and PDF formats.

Online Library of Liberty: Ideal Empires and Republics. Rousseau’s Social Contract, More’s Utopia, Bacon’s New Atlantis, Campanella’s City of the Sun, with an Introduction by Charles M. Andrews (1901). Multiple formats.

Wikisource: New Atlantis, Harvard Classics edition. HTML and other formats.

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Seneca: Oedipus

IngresOdipusAndSphinxThe Oedipus of Seneca the Younger is a Latin adaptation of Sophocles' Oedipus Rex. As with many of Seneca's plays, the action is portrayed more directly than in the Greek model. Notably, in this instance, Jocasta's suicide takes place on stage, rather than being discovered after the fact as in Sophocles.

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Free online texts

Internet Archive: Tragedies I: Hercules Furens. Troades. Medea. Hippolytus. Oedipus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin with facing English translation by Frank Justus Miller.

Latin Library: Oedipus. Latin text. HTML format.

Loebulus: L062N - Tragedies I: Hercules Furens. Troades. Medea. Hippolytus. Oedipus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Theoi: Oedipus, translated by Frank Justus Miller. HTML format.

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Seneca: Phaedra or Hippolytus

Alexandre_Cabanel_PhèdrePhaedra or Hippolytus by Seneca the Younger is a Latin adaptation of Euripides' Hippolytus. Both plays tell the story of Phaedra, the wife of King Theseus and her passion for her step-son Hippolytus. Seneca's portrays the action more directly than Euripides, relying less on intermediaries and letters at key plot points.

Phaedra at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: Tragedies I: Hercules Furens. Troades. Medea. Hippolytus. Oedipus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin with facing English translation by Frank Justus Miller.

Latin Library: Phaedra. Latin text. HTML format.

Loebulus. L062N - Tragedies I: Hercules Furens. Troades. Medea. Hippolytus. Oedipus. Public domain Loeb edition in Latin with facing English translation by Frank Justus Miller. Multiple formats.

Theoi: Phaedra, translated by Frank Justus Miller. HTML format.

Wikisource: Hippolytus or Phaedra, translated by Frank Justus Miller. HTML and other formats.

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Al-Ghazali: The Incoherence of the Philosophers

By السيف ذو الوشاح - CC BY-SA 4.0 Wikimedia CommonsThe Incoherence of the Philosophers (Arabic: تهافت الفلاسفة Tahāfut al-Falāsifah) by Al-Ghazali (1056-1111) is one of the major works of Arabic and Islamic philosophy. In 20 chapters, it critiques the ideas of Avicenna, Al-Ghazali's leading precursor in the Greek-influenced tradition of falsafa. Al-Ghazali has sometimes been blamed for the decline of Muslim science, partly because of a scepticism about causality that has been compared to that of David Hume. Nevertheless, his influence proved decisive for the synthesis of philosophy and Muslim theology, and anticipated later critiques of Aristotelian science.

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Free online texts

Ghazali.org: Incoherence of the Philosophers, translated by Sabi Ahmad Kamali. PDF format.

Internet Archive: Incoherence of the Philosophers, translated by Sabi Ahmad Kamali. Multiple formats.

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Francis Bacon: Novum Organum

Houghton_EC.B1328.620ib_-_Novum_organum_scientiarumThe New Organon (Latin: Novum Organum) is a Latin treatise on scientific method by Francis Bacon (1561-1621). Published in 1620, it was intened to form form part of a greater work which was never completed, the Instauratio Magna. Its title reflects Bacon's critique of ways thinking influenced by Aristotle's Organon, which he sought to replace with the experimental method and inductive reasoning.

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Free online texts

Bartleby: The New Organon Or, True Directions Concerning the Interpretation of Nature. English translation by James Spedding, Robert Leslie Ellis and Douglas Denon Heath. HTML format.

Early Modern Texts: The New Organon, adapted and translated into more modern English, by Jonathan Bennett. PDF format.

Gutenberg: Novum Organum; Or, True Suggestions for the Interpretation of Nature, translated by Joseph Devey. Multiple formats. 

Hanover College: Novum Organum. English translation by Basil Montague (1854). HTML format.

Internet Archive: The Works of Francis Bacon, Vol IV (1858). Multiple formats.

Latin Library: Novum Organum. Latin text. HTML format.

Liberty Fund: Novum Organum. English translation by Joseph Devey. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: The New Organon, translated by James Spedding, Robert Leslie Ellis, and Douglas Denon Heath (1863). Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Latin text and multiple translations. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: Baconian Science. Melvyn Bragg with Patricia Fara, Stephen Pumfrey and Rhodri Lewis.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Francis Bacon (1561 -1626).

Librivox: The New Organon - public domain audiobook.

PhilPapers: Francis Bacon - open access papers.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Francis Bacon.

Wikipedia: Novum Organum

YouTube/60 Second Philosophy: The New Organon overview.

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aristotle: The Organon - The foundational body of work on logic and scientific method whose authority Bacon sought to overturn.

John Aubrey: Brief Lives - includes a life of Bacon.

 


Apuleius: The Golden Ass

Lucius_is_returned_to_human_form_at_the_procession_of_IsisThe Metamorphoses of Apuleius, better known as The Golden Ass (Latin: Asinus aureus) is the only complete surviving Latin novel from antiquity. In eleven books, it tells the story of Lucius, a Greek who is magically transformed into an ass, undergoing in that form a series of picaresque adventures.

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Free online texts

The English Server: The Golden Asse, English translation by William Adlington (1566). HTML format. Archived at the Internet Archive.

Forum Romanum: Metamorphoses. Latin text. HTML format. (Book I missing as of Dec 2018).

Gutenberg: The Golden Asse, English translation by William Adlington (1566). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Golden Ass, Greek text and English translation by William Adlington, revised by  S. Gaselee (1924). Loeb edition. Multiple formats.

Loebulus: L044 - Apuleius - The Golden Ass. Greek text and English translation. PDF format.

Perseus: Metamorphoses. Latin text. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: The Golden Ass, translated by A.S. Kline (2013). Multiple formats.

Sacred Texts Archive: The Golden Asse, English translation by William Adlington (1566). HTML format. See also The Marriage of Cupid and Psyche.

University of Adelaide: The Golden Asse, English translation by William Adlington (1566). Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Latin text and English translation by William Adlington (1566). HTML and other formats.

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