Francis Bacon: Novum Organum
Seneca: Phaedra or Hippolytus

Al-Ghazali: The Incoherence of the Philosophers

By السيف ذو الوشاح - CC BY-SA 4.0 Wikimedia CommonsThe Incoherence of the Philosophers (Arabic: تهافت الفلاسفة Tahāfut al-Falāsifah) by Al-Ghazali (1056-1111) is one of the major works of Arabic and Islamic philosophy. In 20 chapters, it critiques the ideas of Avicenna, Al-Ghazali's leading precursor in the Greek-influenced tradition of falsafa. Al-Ghazali has sometimes been blamed for the decline of Muslim science, partly because of a scepticism about causality that has been compared to that of David Hume. Nevertheless, his influence proved decisive for the synthesis of philosophy and Muslim theology, and anticipated later critiques of Aristotelian science.

Al-Ghazali at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Ghazali.org: Incoherence of the Philosophers, translated by Sabi Ahmad Kamali. PDF format.

Internet Archive: Incoherence of the Philosophers, translated by Sabi Ahmad Kamali. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Al-Ghazali - Radio programme with Melvyn Bragg, in discussion with Peter Adamson, Carole Hillenbrand and Robert Gleave.

Ghazali.org - website dedicated to the thinker and his works.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: 143 - Special Delivery - al-Ghazālī, podcast by Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: 144 - Miracle Worker - al-Ghazālī against the Philosophers, podcast by Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: 145 - Frank Griffel on al-Ghazālī, podcast by Peter Adamson.

Islamic Philosophy Online: al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid (1058-1111).

PhilPapers: Al-Ghazali - Bibliography with open access option.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Al-Ghazali.

UNESCO: Al-Ghazali, by Nabil Nofal, from Prospects: the quarterly review of comparative education. PDF format.

Wikipedia: Al-Ghazali - The Incoherence of the Philosophers

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Averroes: The Incoherence of the Incoherence

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