Spanish language resources
Valmiki: Ramayana

Pascal: The Pensées

800px-Blaise_Pascal_2The Pensées (literally thoughts) is a fragmentary collection of writings prepared by the French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal for a projected defence of Christianity, left unfinished at his death in 1662. The proper order of the work has been the subject of much controversy, and older public domain works may not reflect recent scholarship.

Pascal was closely associated with the Jansenist movement in French Catholicism, and the Pensées reflect the Augustinian belief that man can be saved only by a divine grace he can do nothing to earn. This spirit is reflected in the most famous argument of the Pensées, 'Pascal's wager', which suggests that it is better to live as if God exists because one avoids infinite loss is one is right and suffers only finite loss if one is wrong.

The Pensées at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Bartleby: Thoughts. Harvard Classics Volume 48, Part 1. English translation. HTML format.

Christian Classics Ethereal Library: Pensées. Translated by William Finlayson Trotter. Multiple formats.

Classical Library: Pensées. English translation. HTML format.

Gallica: Pensées, Tome 1. French text edited by Léon Bruschvicg (1904). Image file format.

Gutenberg: Pascale's Pensées. English translation. Introduction by T.S. Eliot. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Pensées, translated by W.F. Trotter. 1941 Modern Library edition. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Pascal's Pensées, translated by Gertrude Burford Rawlings. Multiple formats.

Intratext: Pensées, translated by W.F. Trotter. HTML format. Pensées. French text. PDF based on 1671 edition.

University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): Pensées, translated by W.F. Trotter. Multiple formats.

University of Freiburg: Pensées. French text. PDF format.

University of Dusseldorf: Pensées. French text, 1812 Renouard edition. Image file format.

Wikisource: French texts and English translation by William Finlayson Trotter. HTML and other formats.

Audio Resources

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: Pascal. Melvyn Bragg with David Wootton, Michael Moriarty, Michela Massimi.

LibriVox: Pensées - public domain audiobook.

Philosophy Bites: Ben Rogers on Pacal's Pensées - podcast

Other resources

Les Pensées de Blaise Pascal. Dedicated French language website.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Pascal, Blaise - Pascal's Wager about God.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Blaise Pascal - Pascal's Wager.

Wikipedia: Blaise Pascal - Pensées.

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Pascal: Provincial Letters

Descartes: Discourse on Method - Meditations - Pascal was strongly critical of the mechanistic side of Descartes' account of human nature.

French Language resources 

Works quoted in the Pensées

The Bible: Genesis - Exodus - Deuteronomy - Numbers - Ruth - I Samuel - I Kings - II Kings - Daniel - Jeremiah - Isaiah - Ezekiel - Hosea - Joel - Micah - Amos - Jonah - Malachi - Psalms - Proverbs - Lamentations - Wisdom - Ecclesiastes - Song of Solomon - Job - Ecclesiasticus - Esdras - Matthew - Mark - Luke - John - Acts - Romans - I Corinthians - II Corinthians - I Galatians - Philippians - I Timothy - Hebrews - James - I Peter - Revelations

Terence: The Self-Tormentor

Cicero: On Ends - On Duties - On Divination - Tusculan Disputations - Academica

Livy: From the Foundation of the City

Virgil: Georgics

Horace: Odes - Epistles

Ovid: Metamorphoses

Seneca the Elder: Suasoriae

Seneca the Younger: Moral Letters to Lucilius

Petronius: Satyricon

Tacitus: Annals

Quintilian: Institutes

Plutarch: Moralia

Augustine: City of God - Contra Julianum - Sermons - Letters

St Bernard: Sermons on the Canticle

Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica

Montaigne: Essays

Corneille: Medée - Horace


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