The Georgics (Latin: Georgica) is a didactic poem by Virgil (70-19 BC) on agriculture and rural life, after the manner of Hesiod's Works and Days. Completed in 29 BC, it was his second major poem after the Eclogues.
Book 1 focuses on arable farming and the disruption caused by the murder of Caesar, underlining that Virgil's portrait of rural peace had political undertones. The same could be said of his praise of rural Italy in book 2, which concentrates on the cultivation of trees such as the olive and the vine, while Book 3 covers cattle farming. Book 4 deals with bee-keeping, introducing an influential metaphor for human society.
English translators of the Georgics include John Dryden, who famously accounted it 'the best poem of the best poet.'
Free online texts
Gutenberg: The Georgics. English translation. Multiple formats.
Internet Archive: The Georgics of Virgil, translated by William Sotheby (1808). Multiple formats.
Internet Classics Archive: The Georgics. HTML and TXT formats.
Liberty Fund: Georgics, translated by Arthur S. Way. Multiple formats.
Loebulus. L063N - Virgil -- Eclogues. Georgics. Aeneid, Books 1-6. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.
Poetry in Translation: The Georgics, translated by A.S. Kline (2001). Multiple formats.
Sacred Texts: Georgics. Latin text and prose translation by J.W. MacKail. HTML format.
Theoi: Georgics, translated by H.R. Fairclough. HTML format.
Times Literary Supplement: The Bees (Virgil’s Georgics: Book IV), translated by Peter McDonald. 6 September 2016.
University of Adelaide: The Georgics, translated by J.B. Greenough. Multiple formats.
University of Michigan: Virgil's Georgics, translated by John Dryden. HTML format.
Ancient-Literature.com: The Georgics - summary and analysis.
BBC History: Virgil.
Independent: Georgics, By Virgil, translated by Kimberly Johnson. Review by Boyd Tonkin. 5 January 2010.
Librivox: Georgica - public domain audiobook.
Literature and History: Ep.53 - Then Came Hard Iron - Virgil's Georgics. Podcast and transcript by Doug Metzger.
Poetry Foundation: Passages from Virgil's First Georgic, by Robert Fitzgerald.
The New Republic: The Farmer as Hero. Review of Ferry and Lembke translations by David Quint. 20 March 2006.
The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes
Callimachus - central to the Alexandrian school of Greek poetry which influenced Virgil's highly allusive literary style.
Apollonius of Rhodes: Argonautica.
Varro: Res rusticae
Lucretius: On the Nature of Things
Mandeville: The Fable of the Bees
Addison: Essay on Virgil's Georgics
Latin Resources: Online materials for learning Latin.
Bloom's Western Canon: The Georgics is listed.