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December 2016

Plutarch: Moralia

The Moralia (Greek: Ἠθικά Ethika) by Plutarch of Chaeronea is a collection of writings loosely bound by the subject of morals in the sense of mores or customs, and encompassing all of Plutarch's extant works apart from the Parallel Lives. It was a major influence on the development of the essay as a literary form, particularly through its impact on renaissance writers such as Montaigne.

The Moralia at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Complete Works of Plutarch — Volume 3: Essays and Miscellanies. English text, multiple formats.

Gutenberg: Plutarch's Morals, translated by E.R. Shilleto. English texts, multiple formats.

Lacus Curtius: Plutarch - includes English translations of about half of the Moralia in HTML format.

Online Library of Liberty: Plutarch’s Morals, 5 vols, translated by William W. Goodwin, with an introduction by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1878). Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Complete Works of Plutarch — Volume 3: Essays and Miscellanies. English text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: Plutarch's Moralia: Twenty Essays, selections translated by Philemon Holland (1603), 1911 edition. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Ηθικά, Greek text, multiple formats.

Loeb Editions

Internet Archive. Moralia, in fifteen volumes, with an English translation by Frank Cole Babbitt. Vol I, Vol II, Vol IIIVol IV, Vol V, Vol VI, Vol VII, Vol VIII, Vol IX, Vol X, Vol XI, Vol XII, Vol XIII(a), Vol XIII(b), Vol XIV, Vol XVIndex. Multiple formats.

Loebulus. L222 - Plutarch -- Moralia II: How to Profit by One's Enemies. On Having Many Friends. Chance. Virtue and Vice. Letter of Condolence to Apollonius. Advice About Keeping Well. Advice to Bride and Groom. The Dinner of the Seven Wise Men. Superstition. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.
Loebulus. L245 - Plutarch -- Moralia III: Sayings of Kings and Commanders. Sayings of Romans. Sayings of Spartans. The Ancient Customs of the Spartans. Sayings of Spartan Women. Bravery of Women. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.
Loebulus. L305 - Plutarch -- Moralia IV: Roman Questions. Greek Questions. Greek and Roman Parallel Stories. On the Fortune of the Romans. On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander. Were the Athenians More Famous in War or in Wisdom? PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.
Loebulus. L306 - Plutarch -- Moralia V: Isis and Osiris. The E at Delphi. The Oracles at Delphi No Longer Given in Verse. The Obsolescence of Oracles. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.
Loebulus. L337 - Plutarch -- Moralia VI: Can Virtue Be Taught? On Moral Virtue. On the Control of Anger. On Tranquility of Mind. On Brotherly Love. On Affection for Offspring. Whether Vice Be Sufficient to Cause Unhappiness…. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.
Loebulus. L321 - Plutarch -- Moralia X: Love Stories. That a Philosopher Ought to Converse Especially With Men in Power. To an Uneducated Ruler. Whether an Old Man Should Engage in Public Affairs. Precepts of Statecraft. On Monarchy, Democracy, and Oligarchy. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.
Loebulus. L406 - Plutarch -- Moralia XII: Concerning the Face Which Appears in the Orb of the Moon. On the Principle of Cold. Whether Fire or Water Is More Useful. Whether Land or Sea Animals Are Cleverer. Beasts Are Rational. On the Eating of Flesh. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also at the Internet Archive.

 

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Cicero: Letters to Quintus

The Letters to Quintus (Latin: Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem) is a collection of letters from the Roman writer and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero to his brother Quintus, written mainly between 59 and 54 BCE. Some editions of the collection include a letter from Quintus On Running for the Consulship (Latin: De petitione consulatus).

Letters to Quintus at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Latin Library: Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L230N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends III: Books 13-16. To His Brother Quintus. To Brutus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Letters to and from Quintus. Latin text and English translation by Evelyn Shuckburgh (1908). HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem. Latin text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: Letters to his Brother Quintus, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh (1900). Multiple formats.

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Cicero: Letters to Friends

The Letters to Friends (Latin: Epistulae ad Familiares) is a collection of letters from the Roman writer and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero to various friends and relations, published by Cicero's secretary Tiro. Their rediscovery in the fourteenth century had  significant impact on renaissance humanism.

Letters to Friends at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Latin Library: Epistulae ad FamiliaresLatin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L205N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends I: Books 1-6. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.
Loebulus. L216N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends II: Books 7-12. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.
Loebulus. L230N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends III: Books 13-16. To His Brother Quintus. To Brutus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Epistulae ad Familiares. Latin text, HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: Epistulae ad Familiares. Partial Latin text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: Letters to Friends, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh (1900). Multiple formats.

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Cicero: Letters to Brutus

Brogi _Carlo_(1850-1925)_-_n._16585_-_Roma_-_Museo_Capitolino_-_Marco_Giunio_Bruto _busto_in_marmo.The Letters to Brutus (Latin: Epistulae ad Brutum) is a collection of letters from the Roman statesman and writer Marcus Tullius Cicero to Marcus Junius Brutus, the assassin of Julius Caesar. It features some 25 letters written in 43 BC, a year after Caesar's death and a year before Brutus' own suicide following the battle of Philippi.

Letters to Brutus at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

 Free online texts

Latin Library: Epistulae ad Brutum. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L230N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends III: Books 13-16. To His Brother Quintus. To Brutus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Letters to and from Brutus. Latin text, HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: Epistulae ad Brutum. Latin text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: Letters to Brutus, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh (1900). Multiple formats.

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Cicero: Letters to Atticus

The Letters to Atticus (Latin: Epistulae ad Atticum) is a collection of correspondence between Cicero and his close friend Atticus, covering the period between 68 and 43 BCE. When the collection was rediscovered in Verona in 1345, the great renaissance humanist Petrarch was scandalised by their revelations of Cicero's personality. Together with Cicero's other letters they provide one of the most remarkable insights into the life of any individual from the ancient world.

Letters to Atticus at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

 Free online texts

Latin Library: Epistulae ad Atticum. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L007N - Cicero -- Letters to Atticus I. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.
Loebulus. L008N - Cicero -- Letters to Atticus II. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.
Loebulus. L097N - Cicero -- Letters to Atticus III. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Letters to Atticus. Latin text, HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: Epistulae ad Atticum. Latin text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: Letters to Atticus, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh (1900). Multiple formats.

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Cicero: On Duties

On Duties or On Obligations (Latin: De Officiis) is Cicero's last work on ethics, addressed to his son Marcus, who was studying philosophy in Athens at the time of its completion in 44 BCE. It draws heavily on the work of two Stoic philosophers; Panaetius, who had written his own lost work, and Posidonius, a student of Panaetius, who had himself taught Cicero. Despite these Stoic influences, Cicero strongly defended the value of political activity. 

On Duties at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: De Officiis, multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: De Officiis, translated by Walter Miller (1913). HTML format.

Latin Library: De Officiis. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L030 - Cicero -- De Officiis. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: De Officiis. Latin text, HTML and XML format.

Perseus: De Officiis, translated by Walter Miller (1913). HTML and XML format.

Stoics.com: De Officiis, translated by Walter Miller (1913). HTML format.

Wikisource: De Officiis. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Librivox: On Duties - public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: CiceroDe Officiis.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero: Tusculan Disputations - defends Stoic views on happiness.

Cicero: On the Ends of Good and Evil - examines the ethical teachings of the major philosophical schools.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Hesiod: The Theogony

The Theogony (Greek: Θεογονία, Theogonía), a poem by Hesiod, is the earliest and most important systematic account of Greek mythology. Little is known of Hesiod other than that he was a farmer in Boeotia, probably in the 7th century BCE. This background is reflected in the opening of the Theogony, in which Hesiod is inspired by the muses while pasturing sheep on Mount Helicon. The poem goes on to describe the creation of the world out of primeval chaos, the genealogy of the Gods, the struggle of the Titans and Olympians, and the divine parentage of human heroes.

Hesiod wrote in a similar epic dialect to Homer, though he is often seen as reflecting a later development. The relatively systematic worldview presented in the Theogony has made it a key point of comparison with the earliest Greek philosophers, a number of whom continued to use poetic forms and indeed myth.

The Theogony at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns, and Homerica.

Loebulus. L496 - Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns, and Homerica. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text - English text, translated by Hugh Evelyn-White (1914). HTML and XML formats.

Sacred-Texts: Theogony, translated by H.G. Evelyn-White. HTML format.

Theoi: Theogony ,translated by H.G. Evelyn-White. HTML format.

Wikisource: The Theogony, translated by H.G. Evelyn-White (1920).  Multiple formats.

Wikisource: ΘΕΟΓΟΝΙΑ. Greek text. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Ancient Greece: The Greek Genesis, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

History of Ancient Greece: Oligarchs and Hesiod, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Librivox: Works and Days, The Theogony, and The Shield of Heracles - Public domain audiobook.

Literature and History: Before Orthodoxy - Hesiod's Theogony - Ancient Greece's Creation Story. Podcast and transcript.

Wikipedia: Theogony.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Homer: The Iliad and The Odyssey.

Hesiod: Works and Days.

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: The Theogony is listed.


Cicero: On Friendship

On Friendship (Latin: Laelius de Amicitia) is a dialogue by Cicero, which argues that true friendship is founded on virtue. It was completed in 44 BCE and set in 129 BC in the period following the death of Scipio Aemilianus around 129 BC. The speakers are Scipio's friend Laelius, and his two sons-in-law, Fannius and Scaevola, the latter of whom taught Cicero law.

On Friendship at Amazon: United States.

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Treatises on Friendship and Old Age by Marcus Tullius Cicero, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh. Multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: Cicero on Friendship, translated by W.A. Falconer (1923). HTML format.

Latin Library: Laelius de AmicitiaLatin text, HTML format.

Perseus: De Amicitia. Latin text, HTML and XML formats.

Perseus: Laelius on Friendship, translated by W.A. Falconer (1923). HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: Laelius on Friendship. Latin text with facing English translation, multiple formats.

Wikisource: Laelius de Amicitia. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Cicero.

Wikipedia: Cicero - Laelius de Amicitia.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Cicero: On Old Age

On Old Age (Latin De Senectute or Cato Maior de Senectute) is a dialogue by Cicero, written about 44 BC, and set a century earlier. The aged Cato the Censor is portrayed in discussion with the younger Scipio Aemilianus and Laelius, expounding his views on dealing with old age, and his belief in the immortality of the soul. The early part of the dialogue is influenced by Plato's portrayal of Cephalus in Book 1 of The Republic.

On Old Age at Amazon: United States.

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Cato Maior de Senectute. Latin text, multiple formats.

Gutenberg: Treatises on Friendship and Old Age by Marcus Tullius Cicero, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh. Multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: Cicero on Old Age, translated by W.A. Falconer (1923). HTML format.

Latin Library: Cato Maior de Senectute. Latin text, HTML format.

Perseus: De Senectute. Latin text, HTML and XML formats.

Perseus: Cato the Elder On Old Age, translated by W.A. Falconer. HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: Cato Maior de Senectute. Latin text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: De Senectute, translated by Andrew P. Peabody (1884). Multiple formats.

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Cicero: On Fate

On Fate (Latin: De Fato) is a partly extant work by Cicero, written in 44 BC, in which he discusses fate and freedom of the will with his friend Aulus Hirtius. Although ostensibly a dialogue, the surviving portions contain long passages of exposition by Cicero. The work appears to be closely connected to On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination.

On Fate at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: The treatises of M.T. Cicero: On the nature of the gods; On divination; On fate; On the republic; On the laws; and On standing for the consulship. Literally translated chiefly by the editor, C.D. Yonge (1878). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: De natura deorum, De divinatione, De fato, edited by Reinholdus Klotz (1879). Latin text, multiple formats.

Latin Library: De Fato. Latin text, HTML format.

Perseus: De Fato. Latin text, edited by C.F.W. Muller (Teubner, 1915). HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: De Fato. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Cicero.

Wikipedia: Cicero - De Fato.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero: On the Nature of the Gods.

Cicero: On Divination.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.