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September 2016

Aristotle: Rhetoric

The Rhetoric (Greek: Ῥητορική; Latin: Ars Rhetorica) by Aristotle is a treatise on the art of persuasion, examining how a public speaker can produce a range of effects, including a favourable impression of his own character, and various emotions, as well as winning assent to arguments. As so often with Aristotle, the Rhetoric was foundational for the discipline, setting the agenda down to early modern times. 

The Rhetoric at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Loebulus. L193 - Aristotle -- The "Art" of Rhetoric. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Internet Archive: The Rhetoric of Aristotle, translated by Richard Claverhouse Jebb (1908). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: The Rhetoric, translated by W. Rhys Roberts. HTML and TXT formats.

Perseus: Greek text, edited by W.D. Ross (1959). English text, translated by J.H. Freese (1926). HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: Rhetoric, multiple translations, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Stage Directions: Aristotle's Rhetoric and Poetics - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Librivox: Rhetoric, public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle's Rhetoric, by Christof Rapp.

The Rhetoric at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato: Gorgias, Phaedrus - Key dialogues on rhetoric.

Aristotle: The Topics, Sophistical Refutations - logical works relevant to art of rhetoric.

Aristotle: The Poetics - his other significant work on aesthetics.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Xenophon: Memorabilia

The Memorabilia (Greek: Ἀπομνημονεύματα, Apomnemoneumata) is a work by Xenophon, containing his reminiscences of Socrates. Unlike his Apology, and that of Plato, it is not intended as an account of Socrates' defence at his trial, although it does attempt to refute the charges put forward on that occasion.

Xenophon is one of only three writers to present contemporary accounts of Socrates, along with Plato and Aristophanes. His view of Socrates has certain features in common with that of later philosophical schools such as the Stoics and Skeptics.

The Memorabilia at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Memorabilia, multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: L 168 Xenophon IV Memorabilia Oeconomicus Symposium Apologia. Loeb edition, Greek text with English translations by E.C. Marchant and O.J Todd. Multiple formats.

Perseus: Greek text (Clarendon, 1921). English text, translated by E.C. Marchant (Heinemann, 1923). HTML and XML format.

University of Adelaide: Memorabilia, translated by H.G. Dakyns. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Απομνημονεύματα (Ξενοφών). Greek text. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: Xenophon. Melvyn Bragg with Paul Cartledge, Edith Hall and Simon Goldhill.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Socrates without Plato: the Accounts of Aristophanes and Xenophon - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Xenophon.

Leo Strauss Center: Xenophon, Oeconomicus and Memorabilia (St. John’s College Annapolis), 1969-70. Audio recordings of Strauss's lectures.

University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law: I.F. Stone Breaks the Socrates Story. 1979 New York Times Magazine interview.

Wikipedia: Memorabilia (Xenophon).

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Xenophon: Apology, Symposium.

Plato: Apology.

Aristophanes: The Clouds - along with Xenophon and Plato, this play is the only other surviving contemporary account of Socrates.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Aristotle: On the Soul (De Anima)

On the Soul (Greek Περὶ Ψυχῆς, Perì Psūchês; Latin De Anima) is a work of Aristotle which examines the nature of the soul and its relation to the body, which Aristotle takes to be an instance of his more general distinction between matter and form.

On the Soul at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Free online texts

Internet Archive: De Anima, translated by R.D. Hicks, (Cambridge, 1906). Greek and English text. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Peri Psyches, translated by Edwin Wallace (Cambridge, 1882). Greek and English text. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: On the Soul, translated by J.A. Smith. HTML and TXT formats.

Classics in the History of Psychology: De Anima (On the Soul), translated by J.A. Smith. HTML format.

University of Adelaide: On the Soul, translated by J.A. Smith. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: On the Vital Principle, translated by Charles Collier (1855). Multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Soul Power: Aristotle's De Anima -  podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: God Only Knows: Aristotle on Mind and God - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Librivox: De Anima - public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Ancient Theories of the Soul, by Hendrik Lorenz

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle's Psychology, by Christopher Shields.

Wikipedia: On The Soul.

On the Soul at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes.

Plato on the soul: Phaedo, The Republic.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Aristotle: On The Heavens

On the Heavens (Greek: Περὶ οὐρανοῦ, Latin: De Caelo) is Aristotle's chief work on cosmology and astronomy. It remained a profound influence on later astronomical thinking until the early modern period.

On the Heavens at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Free online texts

Internet Archive: De Caelo, translated by J.L. Stocks (1922). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: On The Heavens, translated by J.L. Stocks (1922). HTML and TXT files.

Sacred-texts.com: On The Heavens, translated by J.L. Stocks (1922). HTML text.

University of Adelaide: On the Heavens, translated by J.L. Stocks. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Greek text. English text, translated by J.L. Stocks. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Let's Get Physical: Aristotle's Natural Philosophy - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Richard Sorabji on Time and Eternity in Aristotle - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: God Only Knows: Aristotle on Mind and God - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Librivox: On the Heavens - public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle's Natural Philosophy, by Istvan Bodnar.

Wikipedia: On the Heavens

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato: Timaeus - a key dialogue on cosmology.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Aristotle: The Poetics

The Poetics (Greek: Περὶ ποιητικῆς, Latin: De Poetica) is a treatise by Aristotle on literary theory. Like many of his other works, it exercised a formative influence on the discipline it examined up to the renaissance.

Aristotle divided poetry into tragedy and comedy and into narrative and dramatic forms. Like Plato, Aristotle saw the essence of art in representation or mimesis. In contrast to the critical view of mimesis in Plato's dialogues, Aristotle's theory of catharsis suggested that tragedy could have a positive effect through purging negative emotions.

The Poetics at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Poetics, translated by S.H. Butcher. Multiple formats.

Perseus: Greek text, ed. by R. Kassel (1966). English text, translated by W.H. Fyfe (1932). HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: Translation by Ingram Bywater (1898). Translation by S.H. Butcher (1922).

Continue reading "Aristotle: The Poetics" »


Aristotle: The Metaphysics

The Metaphysics (Greek: τὰμετὰτὰφυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is a key philosophical work of Aristotle. The book's name originally came from its position after the Physics in Aristotle's collected writings. However, it's title subsequently provided the name for the branch of philosophy with which it was concerned, addressing the fundamental nature of being.

The Metaphysics at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Free online texts

Bibliotheque Nationale De France: Aristotle's Metaphysics with Averroes' commentary. Latin text, image files.

The Classical Library: Metaphysics, translated by W.D. Ross. English HTML files.

Internet Archive: Organon and Other Works, translated by W.D. Ross. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Metaphysics, translated by W.D. Ross. English HTML and TXT files.

Perseus: Greek text, edited by W.D Ross (1924). English text, translated by Hugh Tredinnick (1933). HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: Greek text. Partial English text, translated by W.D. Ross and J.A. Smith. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Down to Earth Aristotle on Substance - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: God Only Knows: Aristotle on Mind and God - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle - Metaphysics, by Joe Sachs.

Librivox: Metaphysics - public domain audiobook.

Ontology.ca: Aristotle and the Science of Being qua Being. Ancient and Modern Interpretations.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle's Metaphysics, by S. Marc Cohen.

University of Washington: An Outline of Metaphysics Ζ, by S. Marc Cohen.

Wikipedia: Metaphysics (Aristotle).

The Metaphysics at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

The Great Conversation: Related reading at Tom's Learning Notes.

Plato: The Republic - key text for the theory of the forms.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Orosius: Seven Books of History Against the Pagans

Seven Books of History Against the Pagans (Latin: Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII) is a work of universal history written in the early fifth century by Paulus Orosius, a Galician Catholic priest and student of St Augustine. The History Against the Pagans shares a common aim with Augustine's City of God, in seeking to vindicate Christianity as a positive development in human history, at a time when pagans were blaming the new religion for the sack of Rome by Alaric.

The work enjoyed immense popularity in the Middle Ages, being translated into Old English, reputedly by King Alfred, and into Arabic in Andalusia.

Orosius at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.
Free online texts

Attalus.org: Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII. Latin HTML text.

Documenta Catholica Omnia: Historiarum Libri Septem. Latin PDF text.

Google Sites/Demontortoise2000: A History Against the Pagans. English HTML text.

Internet Archive: King Alfred's Orosius (Early English Texts Society, 1883). Latin and Old English, multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII (1574). Latin text, multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII (Syvert Haverkamp, 1857). Latin text, multiple formats.

Internet Archive:  Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII (Teubner edition, 1889). Latin text, multiple formats.

Latin Library: Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII. Latin HTML text.

Unversity of Oxford Text Archive: Alfred's Orosius. Old English, ZIP text file.

Other Resources

Academia.edu: The Orosius in King Alfred’s Court: A Ninth-Century Historical Renaissance, by David Carlton.

Ancient History Encyclopedia: Orosius, by Joshua J. Mark.

The Baheyeldin Dynasty: Biography - Paul Orosius/Orosius as a Source for Ibn Khaldun.

Catholic Encyclopedia: Paulus Orosius.

Wikipedia: Orosius.

Orosius at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Augustine's City of God - The two texts are closely related as defences of Christianity in the wake of the sack of Rome.

Orosius used a range of sources including: Livy, Caesar's Gallic War, Tacitus, Suetonius, Florus, Eutropius, Justin, Jerome's translation of Eusebius' Chronicle and Rufinus' translation of Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History.


Arrian: The Discourses of Epictetus

The Discourses of Epictetus (Greek: Ἐπικτήτου διατριβαί) are an account of the oral teachings of the 2nd century Stoic philosopher recorded by his pupil, Arrian.

 The Discourses at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Free online texts

Internet Archive: The discourses of Epictetus with the Encheiridion and Fragments, translated by George Long (1890).

Internet Archive: The discourses and manual, together with fragments of his writings, translated by P. E. Matheson (1916).

Internet Archive: The Moral Discourses of Epictetus, translated by Elizabeth Carter.

Loebulus. L131 - Epictetus -- Discourses, Books 1-2. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Loebulus. L218 - Epictetus -- Discourses, Books 3-4. Fragments. The Encheiridion. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text (Teubner 1916). English text, translated by George Long (1890).

Wikisource: Greek text

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Stoicism - radio discussion with Melvyn Bragg, Angie Hobbs, Jonathan Rée and David Sedley.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: You Can Chain My Leg: Epictetus - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epictetus.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epictetus.

Wikipedia: The Discourses of Epictetus.

 The Discourses at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes.

The Enchiridion - A shorter compilation of Epictetus' moral teachings by Arrian.

The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius - a self-examination along Stoic lines of a kind recommended by Epictetus.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Arrian: The Enchiridion of Epictetus

The Enchiridion or Manual of Epictetus is a short compilation of the ethical teachings of the 2nd century Stoic philosopher by his pupil, the writer and historian Arrian.

The Enchiridion at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Free online texts

Internet Archive: The discourses of Epictetus with the Encheiridion and Fragments, translated by George Long (1890).

Internet Archive: The discourses and manual, together with fragments of his writings, translated by P. E. Matheson (1916).

Loebulus. L218 - Discourses, Books 3-4. Fragments. The Encheiridion. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text. English text, translated by George Long.

Wikisource: The Enchiridion. Greek textEnglish text, translated by George Long.

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Stoicism - radio discussion with Melvyn Bragg, Angie Hobbs, Jonathan Rée and David Sedley.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: You Can Chain My Leg: Epictetus - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epictetus.

Librivox: The Enchiridion - public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epictetus.

Wikipedia: Enchiridion of Epictetus.

The Enchiridion at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes.

The Discourses of Epictetus - Another, more extended account of his master's teachings by Arrian.

The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius - a self-examination along the stoic lines recommended by Epictetus.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

 


Marcus Aurelius: The Meditations

The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius are a series of private reflections, written in Greek by the Roman Emperor for his own use, partly while on campaign defending the empire's Northern frontiers. Although not a work of theoretical philosophy, the twelve books of the Meditations are deeply influenced by stoic ethics. The contrast between Marcus Aurelius, perhaps the closest approach to the Platonic ideal of the philosopher-king, and his influential precursor, the freed slave Epictetus, has often been taken to exemplify the indifference of the Stoic ideal to external fortune.

The Meditations at Amazon

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Meditations. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Harvard Classics, Volume 2. Plato, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius. The Apology, Crito and Phaedo, by Plato. The Golden Sayings by Epictetus. The Meditations by Marcus Aurelius. EPUB, MOBI, TXT & PDF formats.

LoebulusL058 - Marcus Aurelius -- Communings with Himself of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Emperor of Rome. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

University of Adelaide: The Meditations, translated by George Long. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: The Thoughts Of The Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, translated by George Long (1862). Multiple formats. 

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Stoicism - radio discussion with Melvyn Bragg, Angie Hobbs, Jonathan Rée and David Sedley.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: The Philosopher King: Marcus Aurelius - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Marcus Aurelius, by John Sellars.

Librivox: The Meditations - public domain audiobook.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Marcus Aurelius.

Wikipedia: Meditations

The Meditations at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes.

Arrian: The Discourses and The Enchiridion of Epictetus - a key influence on the Stoic philosophy of the Meditations.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.