The Charmides (Greek: Χαρμίδης) is a dialogue by Plato on the subject of sophrosyne (σωφροσύνη), a concept often translated as self-control or temperance.
The discussion is set early in the Peloponnesian War, Socrates having just returned to Athens from the Battle of Potidea. The opening section, set in a wrestling school has elements of almost slapstick comedy, as the handsome young Charmides is surrounded by the school's patrons on his arrival. Perhaps there is a comment on the need for sophrosyne here.
The dialogue has important historical resonances. Two of Socrates' interlocutors, Charmides and his guardian Critias, both relatives of Plato, would become leaders of the Thirty Tyrants who overthrew the Athenian democracy at the end of the Peloponnesian War, some three decades after the dramatic date of the dialogue. Socrates' association with them may have contributed to his execution by the restored democracy. The third interlocutor, Chaerophon, was exiled with the leading democrats during the Thirty Tyrants' rule.
Free online texts
Gutenberg: Charmides by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett. Multiple formats.
Internet Classics Archive: Charmides, translated by Benjamin Jowett. HTML and TXT formats.
Loebulus. L201 - Plato -- Charmides. Alcibiades 1 & 2. Hipparchus. The Lovers. Theages. Minos. Epinomis. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.
University of Adelaide: Charmides, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.
Wikisource: Charmides (Plato), translated by Benjamin Jowett. Multiple formats.
Approaching Plato: A Guide to the Early and Middle Dialogues
Archelogos: Plato - Charmides, a commentary by Hugh Benson.
Dale E. Burrington: Guides to the Socratic Dialogues.
History of Philosophy without any gaps: Know Thyself: Two Unloved Platonic Dialogues - podcast with philosophers Peter Adamson and M.M. McCabe.
Librivox: Charmides - audiobook
PhilPapers: Plato - Charmides - open access papers.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plato's Shorter Ethical Works, by Paul Woodruff.
The Great Conversation: Related reading at Tom's Learning Notes.
Aristotle: The Nicomachean Ethics - gives an account of sophrosyne in Book III.
Aristotle: De Anima - examines the issue of self-knowledge.
Augustine - On Free Choice.
Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.
Bloom's Western Canon: Plato's Dialogues are listed.