The History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides chronicles the conflict between Athens and Sparta in the late Fifth Century BC. Its focus on the high politics of war and international relations, in contrast to the broad anthropological approach pioneered by Herodotus, has shaped historical writing ever since. The cool rationalism on display in set pieces such as the Melian dialogue and the Mytilene debate has also had a profound influence on later political thought.
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Free Online Texts
ClassicPersuasion.org (Internet Archive): Thucydides, translated into English, to which is prefixed an essay on inscriptions and a note on the geography of Thucydides, by Benjamin Jowett. Second edition. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1900. Online text.
Gutenberg: The History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by Richard Crawley. Multiple formats.
ToposText: Thucydides, Peloponnesian War, translated by Richard Crawley, HTML format.
University of Adelaide (Internet Archive): History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by Benjamin Jowett. EPUB, HTML and MOBI formats.
Wikisource: History of the Peloponnesian War - Online text, English translation by Richard Crawley. Downloads via Book Creator.
Bryn Mawr Classical Review: Review of Lattimore translation by Kevin Carroll (1999).
The History of Ancient Greece Podcast: 88 - Thucydides and Periclean Politics, by Ryan Stitt. See also subsequent episodes.
Librivox: History of the Peloponnesian War - audiobook.
The Conversation: Guide to the classics - Thucydides’s History of the Peloponnesian War, by Julia Kindt.
Rutgers Classics: A short bibliography on Thucydides, by Lowell Edmunds.
Thucydides Mythistoricus: Internet Archive text of Francis Cornford's book on Thucydides' debts to mythic thought.
Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes
Herodotus: The Histories - Thucydides' great precursor, of whom he appears to make some criticisms.
Xenophon: Hellenica - An account of events in Greece which picks up directly where Thucydides breaks off.
Polybius: The Histories - inherits Thucydides' focus on contemporary politics and warfare.
Livy: From the Foundation of the City - may have been influenced by Thucydides, particularly in his account of the Punic Wars.
Cassius Dio: Roman History - a Greek history of Imperial Rome in Thucydidean style.
Plutarch: Parallel Lives.
Samuel Butler: Atlas of Ancient Geography (1841). Particularly: Asia Minor (3.9 MB) | Greece and Islands (3.6 MB) | Greece and the Peloponnese (4.3 MB) | Greece and the Peloponnesus, South (3.8 MB) | Islands in the Aegean Sea (4.5 MB) |Macedonia, Moesia, Thracia, and Dacia (4.1 MB) | Oriens (Persia) (3.6 MB) Vindelicia, Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and Illyricum (3.0 MB)
Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.
Bloom's Western Canon: The History of the Peloponnesian War is listed.