Stoicism

Strabo: Geography

Map of the World according to Strabo. Via Wikimedia Commons.Strabo's Geographica or Geography (Greek: Γεωγραφικά) is the most important work on its subject to survive from the ancient world, giving a comprehensive account of those parts of Europe, Asia and Africa known to the Romans.

It's author, Strabo, came from a well-to-do Greek family in the city of Amasia, Pontus, and was born in around 64 BC.  His early education at Rome was the prelude to extensive travels in the Near East.  He adopted a Stoic philosophy which influenced a cosmopolitan admiration for the Romans. His lost Historical Sketches covered the periods before and after the work of Polybius, up to the time of Julius Caesar. The Geography may have been completed around around 7BC and revised in 18 AD.

Strabo's Geography  at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Geography of Strabo. Vol I | Vol II | Vol III. English translation by Hailton and Falconer. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: L 049 - Strabo - Geography I. Greek and English text. Loeb edition, multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: Strabo's Geography. English translation by H.L. Jones. HTML format.

Loebulus: L049 - Strabo -- Geography I: Books 1-2L211 - Strabo -- Geography V: Books 10-12L223 - Strabo -- Geography VI: Books 13-14L241 - Strabo -- Geography VII: Books 15-16 | L267 - Strabo -- Geography VIII: Book 17 and General Index. Greek and English text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Greek text and translations by Hamilton & Falconer (Books I-XVII) and by Jones (Books VI-XII).

Wikisource: Greek text available. English text not yet online but open for contributions.

Other Resources

Ancient World Mapping Center: Strabo Map.

BBC In Our Time: Strabo's Geographica. Melvyn Bragg in radio conversation with Paul Cartledge, Maria Pretzler, and Benet Salway.

Cartographic-images.net: Strabo's World Map.

Strabo the Geographer - Site by Sarah Pothecary.

Wikipedia: Strabo - Geographica.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Herodotus: The Histories.

Polybius: The Histories.

Pliny the Elder: Natural History - a similarly encyclopaedic writer who seems to have been oddly unaware of Strabo's work.

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Seneca: Moral Letters to Lucilius

The Death of Seneca, by Manuel Domínguez Sánchez. Via Wikisource.

The Moral Letters to Lucilius (Latin: Ad Lucilium epistulae morales) were composed by the Roman philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca ('The Younger'), during his retirement from the Imperial court in 62-65 AD, a period which ended with his suicide on the orders of the emperor Nero.

The 120 letters, collected in 20 books , were addressed to Seneca's friend Lucilius Junior, then the procurator of Sicily. They amount to informal moral essays, covering subjects such as the nature of the good, happiness and the right attitude to death. It is among the most popular of Seneca's works and as such an important source on Roman stoicism. It's adoption by early Christians contributed to its influence in the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

Moral Letters to Lucilius at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales. Vol. I | Vol. IIVol. III. Public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English. PDF and other formats.

Latin Library: Epistulae Morales Ad Lucilium -  HTML format. 

Loebulus. L075 - Seneca -- Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales I: Letters 1-65. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Loebulus. L076 - Seneca -- Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales II: Letters 66-92. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales. HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: Latin - Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium. English - Moral Letters to Lucilius. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Seneca the Younger - Radio discussion with Melvyn Bragg, Mary Beard, Catherine Edwards and Alessandro Schiesaro.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Anger Management - Seneca, podcast by Peter Adamson.

How to be a Stoic: Seneca to Lucilius - Philosophy as a Guide to Life.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Lucius Annaeus Seneca.

Librivox: Moral Letters - public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Seneca.

Stoics.com: Why Seneca's Moral Essays and Moral Epistles?

Wikipedia: Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero: On Duties.

Marcus Aurelius: The Meditations.

Montaigne: Essays.

Francis Bacon: Essays.

Latin Resources: Online materials for learning Latin.


Cicero: On Duties

On Duties or On Obligations (Latin: De Officiis) is Cicero's last work on ethics, addressed to his son Marcus, who was studying philosophy in Athens at the time of its completion in 44 BCE. It draws heavily on the work of two Stoic philosophers; Panaetius, who had written his own lost work, and Posidonius, a student of Panaetius, who had himself taught Cicero. Despite these Stoic influences, Cicero strongly defended the value of political activity. 

On Duties at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: De Officiis, multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: De Officiis, translated by Walter Miller (1913). HTML format.

Latin Library: De Officiis. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L030 - Cicero -- De Officiis. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: De Officiis. Latin text, HTML and XML format.

Perseus: De Officiis, translated by Walter Miller (1913). HTML and XML format.

Stoics.com: De Officiis, translated by Walter Miller (1913). HTML format.

Wikisource: De Officiis. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Librivox: On Duties - public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: CiceroDe Officiis.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero: Tusculan Disputations - defends Stoic views on happiness.

Cicero: On the Ends of Good and Evil - examines the ethical teachings of the major philosophical schools.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Cicero: On Fate

On Fate (Latin: De Fato) is a partly extant work by Cicero, written in 44 BC, in which he discusses fate and freedom of the will with his friend Aulus Hirtius. Although, ostensibly a dialogue, the extent portions contain long passages of exposition by Cicero. The work appears to be closely connected to On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination.

On Fate at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: The treatises of M.T. Cicero: On the nature of the gods; On divination; On fate; On the republic; On the laws; and On standing for the consulship. Literally translated chiefly by the editor, C.D. Yonge (1878). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: De natura deorum, De divinatione, De fato, edited by Reinholdus Klotz (1879). Latin text, multiple formats.

Latin Library: De Fato. Latin text, HTML format.

Perseus: De Fato. Latin text, edited by C.F.W. Muller (Teubner, 1915). HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: De Fato. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Cicero.

Wikipedia: Cicero - De Fato.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero: On the Nature of the Gods.

Cicero: On Divination.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Cicero: On Divination

On Divination (Latin: De Divinatione) is a dialogue by Cicero published in 44 BC, shortly after the death of Caesar. Following on from the theological issues considered in On the Nature of the Gods, it examines whether it is possible to predict the future. Cicero's brother Quintus deploys stoic arguments to defend belief in some kinds of divination. Cicero ridicules the practice but recommends the maintenance of traditional forms for political reasons.

On Divination at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: The treatises of M.T. Cicero: On the nature of the gods; On divination; On fate; On the republic; On the laws; and On standing for the consulship. Literally translated chiefly by the editor, C.D. Yonge (1878). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: De natura deorum, De divinatione, De fato, edited by Reinholdus Klotz (1879). Latin text, multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: De Divinatione, translated by W.A. Falconer (1923). HTML format.

Latin Library: De Divinatione. Latin text, HTML format.

Perseus: De Divinatione. Latin text, edited by C.F.W. Muller (Teubner, 1915). HTML and XML formats.

Perseus: De Divinatione. Latin text, edited by W.A. Falconer (1923). HTML and XML formats. 

Perseus: De Divinatione, translated by W.A. Falconer (1923). HTML and XML formats. 

Wikisource: De Divinatione. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

Continue reading "Cicero: On Divination" »


Cicero: On the Nature of the Gods

On the Nature of the Gods (Latin: De Natura Deorum) is a dialogue by Cicero which examines theology from the point of view of various philosophical schools. In book 1, Gaius Velleius gives the Epicurean argument for the existence of God, while Quintus Lucilius puts the Stoic case in book 2. Gaius Cotta criticises both viewpoints in book 3 from the viewpoint of Cicero's own academic skepticism.

On the Nature of the Gods at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Cicero's Tusculan Disputations also, Treatises On The Nature Of The Gods, And On The Commonwealth, translated by C.D. Yonge. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The treatises of M.T. Cicero: On the nature of the gods; On divination; On fate; On the republic; On the laws; and On standing for the consulship. Literally translated chiefly by the editor, C.D. Yonge (1878). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive. De Natura Deorum, Libri Tres, Vol I, Vol II, Vol III, edited by J.B Mayor (Cambridge, 1888). Latin text, Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: De natura deorum, De divinatione, De fato, edited by Reinholdus Klotz (1879). Latin text, multiple formats.

Latin Library: De Natura Deorum. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L268 - Cicero -- De Natura Deorum. Academica. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Online Library of Liberty: De Natura Deorum (On the Nature of the Gods), trans. Francis Brooks (London: Methuen, 1896). Multiple formats.

Perseus: De Natura Deorum. Latin text, HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: De Natura Deorum. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

Academia.edu: Cicero Handout -  Arguments For And Against God's Existence in On the Nature of the Gods, by Gregory Sadler.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Cicero.

Librivox: On the Nature of the Gods - public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: Cicero - De Natura Deorum.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato: Euthyphro - a classic examination of divine command theory.

Cicero: Tusculan Disputations - defends Stoic views on happiness.

Cicero: On the Ends of Good and Evil - discusses the ethical teachings of the major philosophical schools.

Cicero: Academica - dialogues on the theory of knowledge.

Cicero: On Divination.

Cicero: On Fate.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: On the Nature of the Gods is listed.


Cicero: Tusculan Disputations

The Tusculan Disputations (Latin: Tusculanae Disputationes or Tusculanae Quaestiones), written in 44BC, is a philosophical treatise in which Cicero defends Stoic views on happiness. The opening dedication to Brutus defends the aspiration for a Latin philosophical literature that could surpass the Greeks. The following five books portray a series of Socratic debates said to have taken place at Cicero's villa in Tusculum. Book 1 deals with the nature of death, book 2 with physical suffering, books 3 and 4 with mental suffering, while book 5 propounds the Stoic view that virtue is always sufficient for happiness.

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Free online texts

Gutenberg: Cicero's Tusculan Disputations. Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: The Academic Questions, Treatise De Finibus, and Tusculan Disputations. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Cicero's Tusculan Disputations : also treatises On the Nature of the Gods, and On the Commonwealth, translated by C.D. Yonge (1877). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Cicero's Tusculan Disputations, translated by A.P. Peabody (1886). Multiple formats.

Latin Library: Tusculanae Disputationes. Latin text, HTML format.

Perseus: Tusculanae Disputationes (Teubner, 1918). Latin text, HTML and XML format.

University of Adelaide: The Tusculan Disputations, translated by Charles Duke Yonge. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Tusculanae Disputationes. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Cicero.

Librivox: Tusculan Disputations - public domain audiobook.

Tusculan Disputations - chapter summaries, by John Uebersax.

Wikipedia: Cicero - Tusculanae Disputationes

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero: Academica.

Cicero: De Finibus.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Cicero: On the Ends of Good and Evil

On the Ends of Good and Evil or On Moral Ends (Latin: De finibus bonorum et malorum), composed by Cicero in 45 BC, presents the ethical teachings of the major philosophical schools of the time in the form of dialogues recounted by Cicero to his friend Brutus. Lucius Torquatus serves as spokesman for epicureanism in the first two books, while Cato represents stoicism in books three and four. Book five presents Cicero's own academic skepticism.

On the Ends of Good and Evil at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Academic Questions, Treatise De Finibus, and Tusculan Disputations. Multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: de Finibus, translated by H. Harris Rackham. HTML format.

Latin Library: De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L040 - Cicero -- De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin with English translation by H. Rackham. Also at the Internet Archive.

Perseus: De finibus bonorum et malorum (Teubner, 1915). Latin text, HTML and XML format.

University of Adelaide: Treatise de Finibus, translated by Charles Duke Yonge. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: De finibus bonorum et malorum. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Cicero.

Librivox: On the Ends of Good and Evil - public domain audiobook.

The Obstinate Classicist: On Moral Ends, summary by Bill Prueter.

Wikipedia: CiceroDe finibus bonorum et malorum.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero: Academica - dialogue on stoic and academic views of the theory of knowledge.

Cicero: Tusculan Disputations.

Plato: Phaedrus - cited by Cicero in Book Two.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Arrian: The Discourses of Epictetus

The Discourses of Epictetus (Greek: Ἐπικτήτου διατριβαί) are an account of the oral teachings of the 2nd century Stoic philosopher recorded by his pupil, Arrian.

 The Discourses at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Free online texts

Internet Archive: The discourses of Epictetus with the Encheiridion and Fragments, translated by George Long (1890).

Internet Archive: The discourses and manual, together with fragments of his writings, translated by P. E. Matheson (1916).

Internet Archive: The Moral Discourses of Epictetus, translated by Elizabeth Carter.

Loebulus. L131 - Epictetus -- Discourses, Books 1-2. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Loebulus. L218 - Epictetus -- Discourses, Books 3-4. Fragments. The Encheiridion. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text (Teubner 1916). English text, translated by George Long (1890).

Wikisource: Greek text

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Stoicism - radio discussion with Melvyn Bragg, Angie Hobbs, Jonathan Rée and David Sedley.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: You Can Chain My Leg: Epictetus - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epictetus.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epictetus.

Wikipedia: The Discourses of Epictetus.

 The Discourses at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes.

The Enchiridion - A shorter compilation of Epictetus' moral teachings by Arrian.

The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius - a self-examination along Stoic lines of a kind recommended by Epictetus.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Arrian: The Enchiridion of Epictetus

The Enchiridion or Manual of Epictetus is a short compilation of the ethical teachings of the 2nd century Stoic philosopher by his pupil, the writer and historian Arrian.

The Enchiridion at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Free online texts

Internet Archive: The discourses of Epictetus with the Encheiridion and Fragments, translated by George Long (1890).

Internet Archive: The discourses and manual, together with fragments of his writings, translated by P. E. Matheson (1916).

Loebulus. L218 - Discourses, Books 3-4. Fragments. The Encheiridion. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text. English text, translated by George Long.

Wikisource: The Enchiridion. Greek textEnglish text, translated by George Long.

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Stoicism - radio discussion with Melvyn Bragg, Angie Hobbs, Jonathan Rée and David Sedley.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: You Can Chain My Leg: Epictetus - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epictetus.

Librivox: The Enchiridion - public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epictetus.

Wikipedia: Enchiridion of Epictetus.

The Enchiridion at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes.

The Discourses of Epictetus - Another, more extended account of his master's teachings by Arrian.

The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius - a self-examination along the stoic lines recommended by Epictetus.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.