Sophocles

Sophocles: Oedipus at Colonus

Oedipus at Colonus, Jean-Antoine-Théodore Giroust, 1788, Dallas Museum of ArtOedipus at Colonus (Greek: Οἰδίπους ἐπὶ Κολωνῷ, Oidipous epi Kolōnō, Latin: Oedipus Coloneus) is a tragedy by Sophocles, written shortly before his death in 406/405 BCE. It was produced at Athens by his grandson Sophocles the Younger in 401 BC.

It is thus the latest of the three 'Theban plays', in which Sophocles deals with the legends surrounding Oedipus and his family. Although the plays do not constitute a trilogy, it is tempting to see the portrayal of Oedipus' search for a place to die in peace, as the final reflection of the aging Sophocles on his earlier masterpiece Oedipus Rex.

The events at Colonus, a deme on the outskirts of Athens, are set some years after the earlier play. The protection afforded King Theseus allows Sophocles to portray Athens as a bastion of justice, where the exiled Oedipus is able to find some dignity. We nevertheless see a glimpse of old passions in his curse against his sons, setting up the events which had previously been portrayed by Aeschylus in the Seven Against Thebes, and by Sophocles himself in the Antigone.

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Free online texts

Fadedpage.com: Oedipus at Colonus, translated by Gilbert Murray. Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: Plays of Sophocles: Oedipus the King; Oedipus at Colonus; Antigone; translated by Francis Storr.

Internet Archive: Oedipus at Colonus, Greek text edited by August Meineke (1863). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles - Oedipus Tyrannus, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone, translated by John Swinnerton Phillimore (1902). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Oedipus at Colonus, translated by F. Storr. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus. L020 - Sophocles -- Sophocles I: Oedipus the King. Oedipus at Colonus. Antigone. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text edited by Francis Storr (1912). English translation and notes by Richard Jebb (1889). HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Oedipus at Colonus, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: The Oedipus Trilogy (Oedipus the King - Oedipus at Colonus - Antigone), translated by F. Storr. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Greek text and multiple English translations, including Plumptre (1878), Storr (1913) and Jebb (1917).

Performances and Reviews

British Theatre Guide: Oedipus at Colonus, Theatro Technis, reviewed by Howard Loxton.

The New Hampshire, Oedipus at Colonus, reviewed by Alex La Roza, 2 March 2017.

Nuvo: NoExit's Oedipus at Colonus at IMA, reviewed by Scott Shoger, May 2012.

 Other Resources

Ancient-literature.com: Oedipus at Colonus - synopsis and analysis.

Classical Wisdom: Oedipus at Colonus - the tale of two ancient deaths.

Grand Valley State University: Notes and questions for Oedipus at Colonus.

History of Ancient Greece: Sophocles, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Librivox: Oedipus at Colonus, public domain audiobooks based on translations by Jebb and Storr.

Literature and History: The Requiem at Athens - Sophocles' Three Theban Plays, Part 2 - Oedipus at Colonus. Podcast and transcript by Doug Metzger.

QUATR.US Study Guides: Oedipus at Colonus, by Karen Carr.

Stockerblog: Oedipus at Colonus, by Barry Stocker.

Text Etc: Translating Sophocles 2 & 3, by C. John Holcombe.

Theatre Database: Oedipus at Colonus, essay excerpted from The Tragic Drama of the Greeks, by A.E. Haigh.

Wikipedia: Sophocles - Oedipus at Colonus.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes.

Sophocles: The other Theban plays - Oedipus the King and Antigone.

Aeschylus: Seven Against Thebes - tells the story of Oedipus' sons.

Aeschylus: Eumenides - shares a similar emphasis on Athens as the seat of justice.

Aristotle: The Poetics.

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Oedipus at Colonus is listed.


Sophocles: The Women of Trachis

Death of Hercules (painting by Francisco de Zurbarán, 1634, Museo del Prado)The Women of Trachis or The Trachiniae (Greek: Τραχίνιαι) is a play by Sophocles thought to be among his earlier surviving works.

The tragedy centres on Heracles and his wife Deianeira, who attempts to win back his love from a captured slave with a love-potion, only to find her self tricked into poisoning him.

The Women of Trachis at Amazon (US/UK/Canada) | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Seven Plays in English Verse, translated by Lewis Campbell. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles Vol. II; Ajax, Electra, Trachiniae, Philoctetes. Greek text with facing translation by F. Storr (Loeb edition, 1916). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles, translated by Thomas Franklin (1848). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles Vol II; Trachinae, Ajax, Philoctetes, Electra, verse translation by Thomas Dale (1824). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles, Vol II; Ajax, Electra, Trachiniae, Philoctetes, Fragments, translated by Lewis Campbell (1879). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Tragedies of Sophocles, translated by Richard C. Jebb (1904). Multiple formats.

Loebulus: L021 - Sophocles II: Ajax. Electra. Trachiniae. Philoctetes. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

University of Adelaide: The Trachiniae, translated by R.C. Jebb. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Greek text and multiple translation. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Ancient Greece: Sophocles, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

History of Ancient Greece: Heracles from Zero to Hero, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Librivox: Trachiniai, translated by Lewis Campbell. Public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: Sophocles

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Bacchylides: Poems.

Aristotle: The Poetics.

Euripides: Heracles.

Euripides: Heracleidae.

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: The Women of Trachis is listed.


Sophocles: Electra

Electra (Greek:  Ἠλέκτρα) is a tragedy by Sophocles produced probably between 41 and 410 BC, a similar date to Euripides' play of the same name, so that it is uncertain which of the two is earlier.

Like Aeschylus' Libation Bearers, both plays focus on Electra's reunion with her brother Orestes, and their joint revenge on their mother Clytemnestra for the murder of their father Agamnenon, King of Mycenae. Sophocles treatment has been thought be some to be distinctive in downplaying the moral issues raised by their vengeance.

Electra at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Seven Plays in English Verse, translated by Lewis Campbell. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles Vol. II; Ajax, Electra, Trachiniae, Philoctetes. Greek text with facing translation by F. Storr (Loeb edition, 1916). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles Vol II; Trachinae, Ajax, Philoctetes, Electra, verse translation by Thomas Dale (1824). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles, translated by Thomas Franklin (1848). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles, Vol II; Ajax, Electra, Trachiniae, Philoctetes, Fragments, translated by Lewis Campbell (1879). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Tragedies of Sophocles, translated by Richard C. Jebb (1904). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Electra, translated by R.C. Jebb. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L021 - Sophocles II: Ajax. Electra. Trachiniae. Philoctetes. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Greek text, edited by Francis Storr (1913). Translation by R.C. Jebb (1894). HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Elektra, translated by George Theodoridis (2006). Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Electra, translated by R.C. Jebb. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Greek text and multiple translations. Multiple formats.

Performances and Reviews

Italy 1962

YouTube: Elektra 1962 (English subtitles)

University of Newcastle (Australia) 1998

YouTube: Sophocles' Elektra (1998 production).

Dream Theatre, Chicago 2010

YouTube: Electra.

Pittsburgh Public Theater 2011

YouTube: Ted Pappas talks about Sophocles' fiery classic ELECTRA at Pittsburgh Public Theater.

The Old Vic 2014 - BBC 2015

YouTube: Sophocles' Electra - Kristin Scott Thomas (BBC Radio 3) - radio production.

Other Resources

Ancient-Literature.com: Electra - synopsis and analysis.

History of Ancient Greece: Sophocles, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Librivox: Translations by Lewis Campbell and Francis Storr. Public domain audiobooks.

Stage Agent: Electra (Sophocles).

Wikipedia: Sophocles - Electra (Sophocles Play).

YouTube: Scene from Sophocles's "Electra"- Fall 2009-Styles of Directing & Acting Class NYU, by Abigail Devora.

Youtube: Popular Videos - Sophocles and Electra.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Homer: The Odyssey.

Aeschylus: The Oresteia - Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers, and The Eumenides.

Euripides: Electra.

Aristotle: The Poetics.

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Electra is listed.


Sophocles: Philoctetes

Philoctetus on the Island of Lemnos (1788), by Jean Germain Drouais. Wikimedia.Philoctetes (Ancient Greek: Φιλοκτήτης) is a Greek tragedy by Sophocles, originally produced in 409 BC. The title character was abandoned  by Ulysses on the island of Lemnos at the outset of the Trojan War. Many years later, a prophecy makes clear that the war cannot be brought to a successful conclusion without Philoctetes' presence.

The action of the play centres on Odysseus attempts to employ Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, to deceive Philoctetes into giving up his bow, and the dilemmas in which this involves Neoptolemus. A resolution is provided through the appearance of Philoctetes' divine patron, Hercules, who compels him to go to Troy.

Philoctetes at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Philoktetes, translated by Gregory McNamee. Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: The Seven Plays in English Verse, translated by Lewis Campbell. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Philoctetes, Greek text edited by Philipp Buttmann (1822). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Philoctetes, Greek text edited with notes by William Haig Brown (1847). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Philoctetes, Greek text with English notes, translated from the German of F.W. Schneidewin by R.B Paul, edited by T.K Arnold (1851). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Philoctetes, Greek text edited with notes by Frederick Blaydes (1870). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Philoctetes, Greek text edited by I. Holub (1889). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Philoctetes, translation by Francis Gifford Plaistowe (1892). Multiple formats (Microform).

Internet Archive: Sophocles Vol. II; Ajax, Electra, Trachiniae, Philoctetes. Greek text with facing translation by F. Storr (Loeb edition, 1916). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles Vol II; Trachinae, Ajax, Philoctetes, Electra, verse translation by Thomas Dale (1824). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles, translated by Thomas Franklin (1848). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles, Vol II; Ajax, Electra, Trachiniae, Philoctetes, Fragments, translated by Lewis Campbell (1879). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Tragedies of Sophocles, translated by Richard C. Jebb (1904). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Philoctetes, translated by Thomas Francklin. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L021 - Sophocles II: Ajax. Electra. Trachiniae. Philoctetes. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Greek text (edited by Francis Storr, 1913). Translation (1898) and notes by Richard Jebb. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Philoktetes, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Philoctetes, translated by Thomas Francklin. Multiple formats.

Vancouver Island University: Philoctetes, translated by Ian Johnston. HTML format.

Wikisource: Greek text and multiple translations. Multiple formats.

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Sophocles: Ajax

 The suicide of Ajax the Great. Etrurian red-figured calyx-krater, ca. 400–350 BC. Said to be from Vulci. Wikimedia CommonsThe Ajax ( Ancient Greek: Αἴας) is a Greek tragedy by Sophocles, thought to be amongst the earliest of his extant plays, and probably produced before 441 BC.

The setting is the Trojan War, after the events of the Iliad and the subsequent death of Achilles, whose arms have been awarded to Odysseus. This decision is bitterly resented by his rival Ajax, whose homicidal anger against the Greek leaders is thwarted by divine intervention. Athena drives him mad so that he attacks sheep and cattle instead. The play opens in the aftermath, as Ajax recovers his wits and is stricken with shame. His wife Tecmessa consoles him, but he resolves upon suicide. Warned by the seer Calchas, his half-brother Teucer arrives too late to prevent Ajax from falling upon his sword. Menelaus and Agamemnon forbid his burial, until they are persuaded to relent by Odysseus.

Ajax at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Seven Plays in English Verse, translated by Lewis Campbell. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Ajax, Greek text, with English translation, commentary and notes by Richard C. Jebb (1896). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles Vol. II; Ajax, Electra, Trachiniae, Philoctetes. Greek text with facing translation by F. Storr (Loeb edition, 1916). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Ajax, Greek text, with Latin translation by Scaliger and English notes by J.R. Pitman (1830). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Ajax, Greek text with English notes by T. Mitchell (1844). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Ajax, Greek text, edited by F.W. Schneidewin, with English notes by R.B. Paul (1851). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Ajax, Greek text, edited by Edward Wunder (1864). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Ajax, Greek text, edited by Christian August Lobeck (1866). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Ajax, Greek text with English notes by F.A. Paley (1888). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Ajax, Greek text, edited by Frederick Blaydes (1908). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Ajax, translated by E.D.A. Morshead (1864). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Ajax, translated by J. Clunes Wilson (1906). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Ajax, translated by R.C. Trevelyan (1919). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles Vol II; Trachinae, Ajax, Philoctetes, Electra, verse translation by Thomas Dale (1824). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles, translated by Thomas Franklin (1848). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles, Vol II; Ajax, Electra, Trachiniae, Philoctetes, Fragments, translated by Lewis Campbell (1879). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Tragedies of Sophocles, translated by Richard C. Jebb (1904). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Ajax, translated by R.C. Trevelyan. HTML and TXT format.

Loebulus: L021 - Sophocles II: Ajax. Electra. Trachiniae. Philoctetes. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Greek text edited by Francis Storr (1913). Translation and notes by Richard Jebb (1907). HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Ajax, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Ajax, translated by R.C. Trevelyan. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Greek text and multiple translations. Multiple formats.

Wilderness House Literary Review: Ajax, translated by Dennis Daly (2012). PDF format.

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Sophocles: The Theban Plays

Oedipus & Antigone, by Charles Jalabert (1842)The Theban Plays is a term often used for three tragedies by Sophocles; Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus and Antigone; all of which deal with the legendary matter of Thebes and its King Oedipus. Although often regarded as a trilogy, the plays were not originally intended as such, being written at widely different times, as part of sequences now lost, and featuring different, sometimes incompatible, versions of the underling myth.

The Theban Plays at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Plays of Sophocles: Oedipus the King; Oedipus at Colonus; Antigone; translated by Francis Storr.

Internet Archive: Sophocles - Oedipus Tyrannus, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone, translated by John Swinnerton Phillimore (1902). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Three Theban plays : Antigone, Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, translated by Theodore Howard Banks (1956). Multiple formats.

Loebulus. L020 - Sophocles -- Sophocles I: Oedipus the King. Oedipus at Colonus. Antigone. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

University of Adelaide: The Oedipus Trilogy (Oedipus the King - Oedipus at Colonus - Antigone), translated by F. Storr. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Sophocles. Multiple translations.

Performances and Reviews

Theatre 80, New York

New York Times: Three Plays, Eight Actors, All Sophocles, by Rachel Saltz, 2 November 2008.

Translation Reviews

Peter J. Ahrensdorf translation

Davidson.EDU: Prof Offers Unadorned Translation of Sophocles Plays, 10 April 2014.

Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews: Greek Tragedy and Political Philosophy, reviewed by Edith Hall.

Other Resources

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: Thebes. Melvyn Bragg with Edith Hall, Samuel Gartland, and Paul Cartledge.

History of Ancient Greece: Sophocles, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Librivox: Sophocles.

Sophocles' Three Theban Plays, resources by translator Jamey Hecht.

Wikipedia: Sophocles

Youtube: Sophocles' Theban Plays, video blog by Phillip Zapkin.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Sophocles: The Theban plays - Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus and Antigone.

Aeschylus: Seven Against Thebes.

Aeschylus: The Oresteia - the only true trilogy still extent from ancient Greek tragedy.

Aristotle: The Poetics.

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Sophocles: Antigone

Antigone_And_The_Body_Of_Polynices_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_14994Antigone (Greek: Ἀντιγόνη) is a tragedy by the Athenian playwright Sophocles, probably composed around 441 BCE. It is therefore the earliest of the so-called 'Theban Plays' in which Sophocles draws on the cycle of myth centred on the story of Oedipus. The dramatic date of Antigone is nevertheless later than that of Oedipus Rex and Oedipus at Colonus, in the aftermath of the struggle between Oedipus' sons portrayed in Aeschylus' Seven Against Thebes

The drama centres on the struggle between the new king of Thebes, Oedipus' uncle/brother-in-law Creon, and Oedipus' daughter Antigone. She is determined to see that her brother Polyneices receives a proper burial, which is forbidden by Creon because of Polyneices' attack on the city. The competing demands of civic, religious and familial loyalties are thus a central theme.

Antigone at Amazon: United States.

 Free online texts

Gutenberg: Plays of Sophocles: Oedipus the King; Oedipus at Colonus; Antigone; translated by Francis Storr.

Internet Archive: Antigone, Greek text edited by Karl Wilhelm Dindorf (1836). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles - Oedipus Tyrannus, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone, translated by John Swinnerton Phillimore (1902). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Antigone, translated by Richard Jebb. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus. L020 - Sophocles -- Sophocles I: Oedipus the King. Oedipus at Colonus. Antigone. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text, edited by F. Storr (1912). English translation (1891) and notes (1900) by Richard Jebb. HTML and XML formats. 

Poetry in Translation: Antigone, translated by George Theodoridis (2004). Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: The Oedipus Trilogy (Oedipus the King - Oedipus at Colonus - Antigone), translated by F. Storr. Multiple formats.

University of Canterbury: Antigone, verse translation by Robin Bond (2014). DOCX and PDF formats.

Vancouver Island University: Antigone, translated by Ian Johnston (2005). HTML format.

Wikisource: Greek text (edited by Richard Jebb, 1891) and multiple translations. Multiple formats.

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Sophocles: Oedipus the King

Oedipus and the Sphinx of Thebes, c.470 BCE.Oedipus the King (Greek: Οἰδίπους Τύραννος, Latin: Oedipus Rex) is a tragedy by Sophocles. Although it is said to have come second in the dramatic competition in Athens at its original production, sometime after 430 BC, it is now widely regarded as Sophocles' masterpiece. It is mentioned favourably several times in Aristotle's Poetics, where it stands alongside the Iliad in a comparison between the tragic and epic forms.

The plot opens with Oedipus, ruler of Thebes, learning from the Delphic oracle that a plague in the city is due to the presence of the murderers of King Laius, his precursor and first husband of his wife Jocasta. It proceeds inexorably through a series of revelations. Oedipus had once killed a man, who is now revealed to be Laius travelling with his retinue. Oedipus is not as he believes the son of King Polybus of Corinth, but a foundling. His true parents are Laius and Jocasta, and he has murdered his father and married his mother.

Oedipus the King at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Bartleby: Oedipus the King, translated by E.H. Plumptre. Harvard Classics edition. HTML format.

Gutenberg: Oedipus King of Thebes, verse translation by Gilbert Murray. Multiple formats. 

Gutenberg: Plays of Sophocles: Oedipus the King; Oedipus at Colonus; Antigone; translated by Francis Storr.

Internet Archive: Oedipus Rex, Greek text with commentary by J.H.C. Barby (1807). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Oedipus Tyrannus of Sophocles, Greek text with English notes by Howard Crosby (1860). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Sophocles - Oedipus Tyrannus, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone, translated by John Swinnerton Phillimore (1902). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Oedipus Rex, Greek text edited by F.H.M. Blaydes (1904). multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Oedipus the King, translated by F. Storr. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus. L020 - Sophocles -- Sophocles I: Oedipus the King. Oedipus at Colonus. Antigone. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text, edited by F. Storr (1912). English translation and notes by Richard Jebb (1887). HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Oedipus Rex, translated by George Theodoridis (2005). Multiple formats.

San Francisco Unified School District/Internet Archive: Oedipus the King - an abridged and adapted version of the play for high school students, by Nick Bartel. HTML format, PDF available at PBS.

Society for Classical Studies: Oedipus the Tyrant and Oedipus the King: A Problem in Translation, by Frank Nisetich, University of Massachusetts, Boston.

University of Adelaide: The Oedipus Trilogy (Oedipus the King - Oedipus at Colonus - Antigone), translated by F. Storr. Multiple formats.

Vancouver Island University: Oedipus the King, translated by Ian Johnston (2014). HTML format.

Wikisource: Greek text (ed. by Richard Jebb, 1887) and multiple translations. Multiple formats.

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