Organon

Aristotle: Sophistical Refutations

 The Sophistical Refutations (Greek: Σοφιστικοὶ Ἔλεγχοι; Latin: De Sophisticis Elenchis) is the final work of the Organon, the traditional collection of Aristotle's logical writings. Like the preceding Topics, its subject matter concerns aspects of logic that are significant for the art of rhetoric, in this case, the identification of fallacies.

The Sophistical Refutations at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Free online texts

Loebulus. L400 - Aristotle -- On Sophistical Refutations. On Coming-to-be and Passing Away. On the Cosmos. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Poesia Latina: Sophistical Elenchi - Greek text, HTML format.

University of Adelaide: On Sophistical Refutations. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: The Sophistical Elenchi, translated by O.F. Owen. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

ChangingMinds.org: Aristotle's 13 Fallacies.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Aristotle's Logical Works - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle: Logic, by Louis F. Groarke.

Librivox: Sophistical Elenchi - public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle's Logic, by Robin Smith.

Wikipedia: Sophistical Refutations.

The Sophistical Refutations at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

 Aristotle's Organon: The Categories, On Interpretation, Prior Analytics, Posterior Analytics, Topics, and Sophistical Refutations.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Aristotle: Topics

The Topics (Greek: Τοπικά; Latin: Topica) is the fifth work in the traditional collection of Aristotle's logical writings, the Organon. Whereas the Posterior Analytics is concerned with scientific demonstration based on true premises, the Topics focuses on dialectic argument based on premises which are merely agreed by common consent to be true. It's subject matter therefore has a large overlap with that of rhetoric.

The Topics at Amazon.com, .uk, .de, .fr.

Free online texts

Internet Archive: L391 - Posterior Analytics & Topica. Greek and English Loeb edition. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Topics. HTML and text files.

University of Adelaide: Topics, Translated by W. A. Pickard-Cambridge. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Topics, translated by O.F. Owen (1853). Multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Aristotle's Logical Works - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle: Logic, by Louis F. Groarke.

Librivox: Topics - public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle's Logic, by Robin Smith.

Wikipedia: Topics (Aristotle).

The Topics at Amazon.com, .uk, .de, .fr.

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aristotle's Organon: The Categories, On Interpretation, Prior Analytics, Posterior Analytics, Topics, and Sophistical Refutations.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

 


Aristotle: Posterior Analytics

In the Posterior Analytics, Aristotle moves on from the study of formal rules of reasoning  in the Prior Analytics to consider the substantive application of logic to produce scientific knowledge, something which he believes is the product of correct reasoning from true premises. This involves him in addressing Plato's Meno's Paradox, seeking to show how knowledge is possible from a position of former ignorance.

The Posterior Analytics at Amazon.com, .uk, .de, .fr.

Free online texts

Bibliotheca Augustana: Ἀναλυτικὰ ὕστερα. Greek HTML text.

Internet Archive: L391 - Posterior Analytics & Topica. Greek and English Loeb edition.

Internet Classics Archive: Posterior Analytics, translated by G.R. Mure. HTML and text versions.

Online Library of Liberty: Posterior Analytics, translated by E.S. Bouchier (1901). Multiple formats.

The Logic Museum: Posterior Analytics, translated by G. R. Mure. HTML text.

University of Adelaide: Posterior Analytics, translated by G.R. Mure. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Posterior Analytics. Greek text - translation by O.F. Owen (1853)- translation by E.S. Bouchier 1901.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Aristotle's Logical Works - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: A Principled Stand: Aristotle's Epistemology - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Archive: Posterior Analytics - public domain audiobook.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle: Logic, by Louis F. Groarke.

Librivox: Posterior Analytics - public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle's Logic, by Robin Smith.

University of Houston: Aristotle's Posterior Analytics, Aristotle's Theory of Knowledge and Demonstration, by Cynthia Freeland.

University of Washington: Posterior Analytics: Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. By Marc Cohen.

Wikipedia: Posterior Analytics.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

 Aristotle's Organon: The Categories, On Interpretation, Prior Analytics, Posterior Analytics, Topics, and Sophistical Refutations.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Aristotle: Prior Analytics

Aristotle's Prior Analytics (Greek: Ἀναλυτικὰ Πρότερα; Latin: Analytica Priora) is a central text of the traditional collection of logical works known as the Organon. it introduces the study of syllogisms, investigating how a given pair of premises can lead necessarily to a conclusion which is not contained in either premise.

If all A are B, and all B are C, then all A are C. This is an argument of a syllogism of the first figure, in which the middle term B is the subject of one premise and predicate of the other.  In this example the premises are universal afffirmative propositions (all A are B). Aristotle also discusses universal negative propositions (no A are B), particular affirmative propositions (some A are B) and particular negative propositions (some A are not B).

After discussing the kinds of valid argument that can be made with syllogisms of the first figure, Aristotle goes on to consider syllogisms of the second figure, in which the middle term is the predicate of both premises, and of the third figure, in which the middle term is the subject of both premises.

All of this is, perhaps inevitably, rather dry reading. The historian of logic John Corcoran has described the Prior Analytics as 'dense, elliptical, succinct, unpolished, convoluted, and technical, unnecessarily so in the opinion of many.' However, he goes on to note:

It presupposes no previous logic on the part of the reader. There was none available to the audience for which it was written — even for today’s reader a month of beginning logic would be more than enough. However, it does require knowledge of basic plane geometry, including ability and experience in deducing non-evident theorems from intuitively evident premises such as those taken as axioms and postulates a generation or so later by Euclid (fl. 300 BCE). Especially important is familiarity with reductio ad absurdum or indirect deduction. Aristotle repeatedly refers to geometrical proofs, both direct and indirect. It also requires the readers to ask themselves what is demonstrative knowledge, how do humans acquire it, what is a proof, and how is a proof made?

If Corcoran regards the prose of the Prior Analytics as 'perversely reader-unfriendly', he nevertheless makes clear its importance, stating: 'The origin of logic is better marked than that of perhaps any other field of study—Prior Analytics marks the origin of logic. ' 

Free online and downloadable texts

Internet Archive: L 325 - The Categories and On Interpretation, translated by Harold P. Cook. Prior Analytics, translated by Hugh Tredennick. Greek and English Loeb edition. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Prior Analytics, translated by A.J. Jenkinson. HTML and text formats.

University of Adelaide: Prior Analytics, translated by A.J. Jenkinson. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Prior Analytics, translated by Octavius Freire Owen.

Texts at Amazon US
Other Resources

Historyoflogic.com: Aristotle's Prior Analytics: the Theory of Categorical Syllogism.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Aristotle's Logical Works - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle: Logic, by Louis F. Groarke.

Librivox: Prior Analytics: public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle's Logic, by Robin Smith.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: The Traditional Square of Opposition, by Terence Parsons.

The First Science: Online Syllogism Solver.

University of Buffalo: John Corcoran, Aristotle’s Prior Analytics and Boole’s Laws of Thought, History and Philosophy of Logic, 2003.

Wikipedia: Prior Analytics.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aristotle's Organon: The Categories, On Interpretation, Prior Analytics, Posterior Analytics, Topics, and Sophistical Refutations.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

 


Aristotle: On Interpretation

Aristotle's On Interpretation (Latin: De Interpretatione, Greek: Περὶ Ἑρμηνείας, Peri Hermeneias) is the second text of the Organon, the collection of short logical works that formed the basis of a traditional philosophical education in much of antiquity and the middle ages.

It begins with an analysis of the basic elements of language, before noting that is only when the parts of speech are brought together to form sentences, that we have propositions that can be said to be true or false. The bulk of the treatise considers the nature of propositions in more detail.

The works most famous passage features the famous sea-battle argument, an early statement of the problem of future contingents.

Free online texts

Biblioteca Online de Ciências da Comunicação: On Interpretation, translated by E.M. Edgehill, PDF file.

Internet Archive: L 325 - The Categories and On Interpretation, translated by Harold P. Cook. Prior Analytics, translated by Hugh Tredennick. Greek and English Loeb edition. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: On Interpretation, translated by E.M. Edgehill. HTML and TXT files.

University of Adelaide: On Interpretation, translated by E.M. Edgehill. HTML text.

Wikisource: On Interpretation, translated by O.F. Owen. HTML text.

Other Resources

Historyoflogic.com: Semantics and Philosophy of Language in Aristotle's De Interpretatione.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Aristotle's Logical Works - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Archive: The Sea-Battle Hub - defunct website on Aristotle's sea-battle argument.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle: Logic.

Librivox: On Interpretation - public domain audiobook.

Philosophiques: Le Chapitre IX du De Interpretatione D'Aristotle, by Jules Vuillemin.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle's Logic, by Robin Smith.

Wikipedia: De Interpretatione.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

 Aristotle's Organon: The Categories, On Interpretation, Prior Analytics, Posterior Analytics, Topics, and Sophistical Refutations.

Porphyry: Isagoge - formed part of the medieval Ars Vetus or old logic, along with the Categories and On Interpretation.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Aristotle: The Categories

The Categories is the first book of Aristotle's Organon, the collection of writings which founded the discipline of logic, and were central to philosophical education for centuries. Setting out to enumerate all the possible kinds of things which can be the subject or predicate of a proposition, Aristotle comes up with the ten concepts that give the book its title: substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, attitude, condition, action and affection.

Free online and downloadable texts

Gutenberg: The Categories, translated by E.M. Edgehill. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: L 325 - The Categories and On Interpretation, translated by Harold P. Cook. Prior Analytics, translated by Hugh Tredennick. Greek and English Loeb edition. Multiple formats.

Classical Library: The Categories, translated by E.M. Edgehill. HTML file.

Internet Classics Archive: Categories, translated by E.M. Edgehill. HTML and text files.

Wikisource: Categories, translated by O.F. Owen (1853).

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Aristotle's Logical Works - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Librivox: The Categories - public domain audiobook.

Ontology.co: Semantics and Ontological Analysis in Aristotle's Categories.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle's Categories, by Paul Studtmann.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle's Logic, by Robin Smith.

Wikipedia: The Categories (Aristotle).

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aristotle's Organon: The Categories, On Interpretation, Prior Analytics, Posterior Analytics, Topics, and Sophistical Refutations.

Porphyry: Isagoge - an introduction to the Categories that strongly influenced the medieval reception of Aristotelian logic.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.