Mythology

Seneca: The Trojan Women

Marie-Lan Nguyen - Wikimedia CommonsThe Trojan Women (Latin: Troades) by Seneca is a Latin adaptation of Euripides' play of the same name, along with elements of the latter's Hecuba.

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Free online texts

Gutenberg: Two Tragedies of Seneca - Medea and The Daughters of Troy by Lucius Annaeus Seneca, verse translation by Ella Isabel Harris. Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: The Ten Tragedies of Seneca. Latin text with English translation by Watson Bradshaw (1902). Multiple formats.

Loebulus. L062N - Tragedies I: Hercules Furens. Troades. Medea. Hippolytus. Oedipus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Theoi: Troades, translated by Frank Justus Miller. HTML format.

Wikisource: The Trojan Women, English translation by Miller. HTML and other formats.

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Seneca: The Madness of Hercules

Picture by Marie-Lan Nguyen - Wikimedia CommonsThe Madness of Hercules (Latin: Hercules Furens) by Seneca the Younger is a Latin adaptation of Euripides' play of the same name. There are some differences in the plot. For example, instead of threatening to kill Hercules' children, the Theban usurper Lycus seeks to marry his wife Megara.

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Free online texts

Internet Archive:  Three tragedies of Seneca: Hercules furens, Troades, Medea, edited by H.M. Kingery (1908). Latin text, multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Ten Tragedies of Seneca. Latin text with English translation by Watson Bradshaw (1902). Multiple formats.

Loebulus. L062N -  Tragedies I: Hercules Furens. Troades. Medea. Hippolytus. Oedipus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Hercules Furens. Latin text. HTML and XML formats.

Theo.com: Herculens Furens, translated by Frank Justus Miller (1917). HTML format.

Wikisource: English translations. HTML and other formats.

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Euripides: Iphigenia at Aulis

The Anger of Achilles, by Jacques-Louis David. Image by Wikimedia Commons user GuyStairSaintyIphigenia in Aulis or at Aulis (Greek: Ἰφιγένεια ἐν Αὐλίδι) is a tragedy by Euripides, probably first produced at Athens after his death in 405 BC. It dramatises the story of the sacrifice of Iphigenia by her father Agamemnon, in order to ensure the success of the Trojan Expedition.

The play is notable for the emphasis on the characters at the expense of the chorus.

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Ιφιγένεια εν Αυλίδι, Greek text. Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: The Tragedies of Euripides, Vol I, translated by Theodore Alois Buckley (1892). Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: The Iphigenia at Aulis of Euripides. Greek text with English notes by Edwin Bourdieu England (1891). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Iphigenia at Aulis. Edition of earliest English translation by Jane Fitzalan Lumley (1577). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Iphigenia at Aulis. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L009 - Euripides -- Euripides I: Iphigenia at Aulis. Rhesus. Hecuba. The Daughters of Troy. Helen. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Greek text and English translation by E.P. Coleridge. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Iphigenia at Aulis, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Iphigenia at Aulis, translated by E.P. Coleridge. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Iphigenia at Aulis, English translation by T.A. Buckley. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

Gutenberg: Euripides and His Age, by Gilbert Murray.

History of Ancient Greece: Euripides at War, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Librivox: Iphigenia in Aulis. Public domain audiobooks.

Wikipedia: Iphigenia in Aulis.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Euripides: Iphigenia in Tauris.

Euripides: The Bacchae.

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Iphigenia at Aulis is listed.


Euripides: The Bacchae

Pentheus being torn by maenads. Casa dei Vettii. Via Wikimedia Commons.The Bacchae (Greek: Βάκχαι) is a tragedy by Euripides, found at his death in 406 BC, and produced in 406 BC. The play dramatises the introduction into Greece of the worship of the god Dionysus. Visiting Thebes, he is rejected by king Pentheus, and takes his revenge by driving the women of the city into a frenzy of madness. Among them, is Pentheus' mother Agave, who tears her son to pieces before recovering her senses and realizing what she has done. The play ends with their family being banished from the city.

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Bacchae, translated by Gilbert Murray (1906). Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: The Tragedies of Euripides, Vol I, translated by Theodore Alois Buckley (1892). Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: The Bacchae. Verse translation by Gilbert Murray. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: The Bacchantes. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L011N - Euripides -- Euripides III: Bacchanals. Madness of Hercules. Children of Hercules. Phoenician Maidens. Suppliants. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Greek text and English translation by T.A. Buckley. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Bacchae, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: The Bacchantes, translated by E.P. Coleridge. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Greek text and English translation by Arthur Way. HTML and other formats.

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Euripides: Ion

Ion (Greek: Ἴων) is a play by Euripides, probably composed around 412BC. The title character is the son of Apollo, by Creusa daughter of King Erechtheus of Athens. Abandoned at birth, his recognition by his mother in adulthood provided a theme that would influence the later New Comedy.

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Ίων, Greek text. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Ion of Euripides. Greek text with English translation. by A.W. Verrall (1890). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Ion, translated by Robert Potter. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L012 - Euripides -- Euripides IV: Ion. Hippolytus. Medea. Alcestis. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Greek text and English translation by Robert Potter (1938). HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Ion, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Ion, translated by Robert Potter. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Greek text and multiple English translations. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

Gutenberg: Euripides and His Age, by Gilbert Murray.

History of Ancient Greece: Euripides at War, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Wikipedia: Ion (play)

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Ion is listed.


Euripides: Iphigenia in Tauris

 Iphigenia from Casa di Lucio Cecilio Giocondo, Pompeii. Picture by Marie-Lan Nguyen. Via Wikisource.Iphigenia in Tauris (Greek: Ἰφιγένεια ἐν Ταύροις) is a tragedy by Euripides probably first performed in Athens some time around 412 BC. The play's usual English title is, strictly speaking, the Latin name meaning 'Iphigenia among the Taurians'.

Euripides follows the version of the Iphigenia story in the Cypria, which relates that when her father Agamemnon was about to sacrifice her to secure the success of the Trojan expedition, she was spirited away by the goddess Artemis to be a priestess in the land of the Taurians in Crimea.

The play deals with the arrival of a group of Greeks among whom Iphigenia recognises her brother Orestes. She saves him from being sacrificed and they escape together with the image of the goddess. The theme of escape has led some commentators to conclude that like Euripides' similar Helen, it was composed after the defeat of the Sicilian Expedition in 413 BC.

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Free online texts

Gutenberg, Iphigenia in Tauris, translated by Gilbert Murray. Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: The Tragedies of Euripides, Vol I, translated by Theodore Alois Buckley (1892). Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: Iphigenia in Tauris, verse translation by Witter Bynner. (1915). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Iphigenia in Tauris, translated by Robert Potter. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L010N - Euripides -- Euripides II: Electra. Orestes. Iphigeneia in Taurica. Andromache. Cyclops. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Iphigenia in Tauris, translated by Robert Potter. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Iphigenia in Tauris, translated by George Theodoris. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Iphigenia in Tauris, translated by Robert Potter. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Greek text and multiple English translations. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

Gutenberg: Euripides and His Age, by Gilbert Murray.

History of Ancient Greece: Euripides at War, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Librivox: Iphigenia in Tauris, public domain audiobooks.

Wikipedia: Iphigenia in Tauris

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Homer: The Iliad

Epic Cycle: The Cypria.

Euripides: Iphigenia at Aulis

Euripides: Helen

Goethe: Iphigenia in Tauris.

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Euripides: The Trojan Women

Ajax raping Cassandra from the Palladium. From Wikimedia Commons by User:Bibi Saint-Pol.The Trojan Women is a tragedy by Euripides, originally produced in Athens in 415 BC, the same year in which the Athenians captured the island of Melos, an event of often thought to have influenced the play's theme.

It centres on the fate of a series of captive women during the sack of Troy. Hecuba, the widow of Priam is to become a slave of Odysseus. Her daughter, the prophetess Cassandra, foresees her own death along with Agamemnon, who will take her as his concubine. Andromache, the widow of Hector, whose son is taken from her by the Greeks, is allotted to Neoptolemus. Helen, the mistress of Paris persuades her husband Menelaus to spare her and take her back.  In the finals scenes, the body of Andromache's son Astyanax is returned to Hecuba for burial, and the women are taken away as the city burns.


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Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Trojan Women, translated by Gilbert Murray (1915). Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: The Trojan Women of Euripides, translated by Gilbert Murray. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: The Trojan Women. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L009 - Euripides -- Euripides I: Iphigenia at Aulis. Rhesus. Hecuba. The Daughters of Troy. Helen. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Poetry in Translation: Trojan Women, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

ToposText: English text indexed to accompanying map.

University of Adelaide: The Trojan Women, translated by E. P. Coleridge. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Greek text and multiple English translations. HTML and XML formats.

Performances and Reviews

YaleNews: ‘The Trojan Women’ at Yale Summer Cabaret laments Syrian war, by Mike Cummings, 23 June 2017.

Gate Threatre, London

Guardian: Trojan Women Review, by Mchael Billington, 13 November 2012.

Amman

Financial Times: Syrian refugees stage Euripides’ ‘The Trojan Women’, by Charlotte Eagar, 3 January 2014.

Flea Theatre, New York

New York Times: The Trojan Women’ Laments War and Bloodshed, From a Distance, by Laura Collins-Hughes, 1 September 2016.

Other Resources

Binghamton University: Ancient Tragedy Study Guide - Euripides' Trojan Women, by Andrew Scholtz.

Gutenberg: Euripides and His Age, by Gilbert Murray.

History of Ancient Greece: Euripides at War, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Internet Archive: Greek and Roman Plays - For the Intermediate Grades, by Dr Albert Cullum. Multiple formats.

Librivox: The Trojan Women. Public domain audiobooks, Coleridge and Murray translations.

University College London: Euripides' Trojan Women Study Guide, by Dr Rosa Andújar.

University College London:  Euripides, Trojan Women, by Professor Chris Carey.

University of Warwick: Summary - The Trojan Women by Euripides, by Mike Conley.

Wikipedia: The Trojan Women.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Homer: The Iliad.

Euripides: Hecuba.

Euripides: Andromache.

Thucydides: History of the Peloponnesian War. Recounts the sack of Melos which occurred around the time the play was first staged and may have influenced its theme.

Seneca: The Trojan Women - A Latin adaptation of the story.

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Euripides: Heracles

Mosaic of the madness of Heracles from the Villa Torre de Palma. Picture by Carole Raddato, via Wikimedia CommonsHeracles or the Madness of Heracles (Greek: Ἡρακλῆς μαινόμενος, Latin Hercules Furens) is a tragedy by Euripides which may have been produced in about 417 BC. 

The play opens with Heracles' wife and children at the altar of Zeus in Thebes, where they are threatened with death by the tyrant Lycus. Heracles returns from the underworld, where he had been engaged on the last of his twelve labours, and rescues them. However, the goddess Hera drives him mad and he kills his own family. When he recovers his senses, he is filled with despair. Consoled by Theseus, who had returned from Hades with him, he is taken to Athens to be purified.

Heracles at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: Euripides with an English translation by Arthur Sanders Way (1930). Vol. III. Bacchanals, The Madness of Hercules, The Children of Hercules, The Phoenician Maidens, Suppliants. Multiple formats

Internet Classics Archive: Heracles, translated by E.P Coleridge. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L011N - Euripides -- Euripides III: Bacchanals. Madness of Hercules. Children of Hercules. Phoenician Maidens. Suppliants. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Heracles, translated by E. P. Coleridge. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Herakles, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Heracles, translated by E.P. Coleridge. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Ancient Greece: Euripides at War, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Wikipedia: Herakles (Euripides)

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Euripides: Heracleidae.

Seneca: Hercules Furens - A Latin play telling the same story with some differences of plot.

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Heracles is listed.


Vyasa: Mahabharata

Vyasa grants Sanjaya divine vision. Wikimedia CommonsThe Mahābhārata (Sanskrit: महाभारतम्, Mahābhāratam) is a Sanskrit epic, one of  the longest in world literature, and along with the Ramayana, one of two considered sacred texts of Hinduism.

Traditionally ascribed to the sage Vyāsa, the poem deals with the Kurukshetra war between two sets of cousins, the Kauravas and the Pandavas. The historical kernel of these events is thought to date back to Vedic India around 1000 BCE, although the Mahabharata itself is thought to have been written down in the period from 400 BCE.

Embedded within the Mahabharata is the Bhagavad Gita, a philosophical dialogue between the Pandava hero Arjuna and his charioteer, the god Krishna, taking place before the onset of the climactic battle with the Kauravas.

The Mahabharata at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Mahabharata. K.M. Ganguli translation. Multiple formats.

Holy Books.com: The Mahabharata - K.M Ganguli translation, PDF format.

Internet Archive: The Mahabharata, translated by K.M. Ganguli (1884-96). Multiple formats.

Online Library of Liberty: The Ramayana and the Mahabharata, verse translation by Romesh C. Dutt. Multiple formats.

Sacred Texts: The Mahabharata, Sanskrit text and English translation by K.M. Ganguli. HTML format.

Wikisource: Sanskrit text and partial text of the English translation, by K.M Ganguli. HTML and other formats.

Performances and Reviews

New York Times: Peter Brook transforms an Indian epic for the stage, by Margaret Croyden, 25 August 1985.

YouTube: Peter Brook's The Mahabharata. See also the IMDB page.

Other Resources

Ancient History Encyclopedia: Mahabharata.

Brown University: The Mahabharata, pages by Sanskrit scholar James L. Fitzgerald.

History of Philosophy Without Any Gaps: Grand Illusion - Dharma and Deception in the Mahabharata, podcast episode by Peter Adamson and Jonardon Ganeri.

The Independent: The Book of a Lifetime - The Mahabharata, by Alice Albinia, 9 June 2011.

Librivox: The Mahabharata by Vyasa: The epic of ancient India condensed into English verse, public domain audiobook.

London Review of Books, How to Escape the Curse, John's Smith's translation reviewed by Wendy Doniger.

UC Davis: Mahabharata, synopsis by V. Vemuri.

Wikipedia: Mahabharata.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Bhagavad Gita

Ramayana

Bloom's Western Canon - The Mahabharata is listed.


Euripides: Hecuba

Hecuba and Polyxena, by Merry-Joseph Blondel. Via Wikimedia Commons.Hecuba (Greek: Ἑκάβη) is a tragedy by Euripides thought to have been written around 424 BC. The plot examines the fate of Queen Hecuba of Troy after the city's fall to the Greeks.

Hecuba loses two of her surviving children in the early scenes of the play. Her daughter Polyxena is carried off by Odysseus to be sacrificed to the shade of Achilles. Her son Polydorus, who Hecuba believes is safely in hiding, is murdered by his guardian, King Polymestor of Thrace, in order to sieze Trojan treasure.

Hecuba learns the truth when Polydorus' body is washed up on the sea shore. Her appeals to Agamemnon for justice go unheard. Instead she lures Polymestor to her tent, where she enacts a bloody revenge, killing his sons, and leaving him blinded.

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Free online texts

Didaskalia: Hecuba, translated by Jay Kardan & Laura-Gray Street. PDF format.

Gutenberg: The Tragedies of Euripides, Vol I, translated by Theodore Alois Buckley (1892). Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: Euripides' Hecuba, Greek text edited with notes Michael Tierney (1946). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: L 484 Euripides II Children Of Heracles Hippolytus Andromache Hecuba. Loeb Edition, Greek and English parallel text. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Hecuba, Greek text edited by Charles Buller Heberden. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Hecuba, Greek text edited by W.S. Hadley (1894). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Hecuba of Euripides, translated by John Bond (1882). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Hecuba and Medea of Euripides, translated by W. Brownrigg Smith (1877). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Hecuba of Euripides, translated by R. Mongan (1865). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Hecuba, translated by E.P. Coleridge. HTML and TXT formats.

Internet Archive: The Hecuba of Euripides, Greek text with notes by T.K. Arnold (1852). Multiple formats.

Loebulus: L009 - Euripides -- Euripides I: Iphigenia at Aulis. Rhesus. Hecuba. The Daughters of Troy. Helen. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Greek text and English translation by E.P. Coleridge. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Hekabe, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Hecuba, translated by E.P. Coleridge. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Greek text and English translations. HTML and other formats.

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