Latin Literature

Seneca: The Trojan Women

Marie-Lan Nguyen - Wikimedia CommonsThe Trojan Women (Latin: Troades) by Seneca is a Latin adaptation of Euripides' play of the same name, along with elements of the latter's Hecuba.

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Gutenberg: Two Tragedies of Seneca - Medea and The Daughters of Troy by Lucius Annaeus Seneca, verse translation by Ella Isabel Harris. Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: The Ten Tragedies of Seneca. Latin text with English translation by Watson Bradshaw (1902). Multiple formats.

Loebulus. L062N - Tragedies I: Hercules Furens. Troades. Medea. Hippolytus. Oedipus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Theoi: Troades, translated by Frank Justus Miller. HTML format.

Wikisource: The Trojan Women, English translation by Miller. HTML and other formats.

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Gregory of Tours: History of the Franks

Saint_Grégoire_Sacramentaire_de_Marmoutier_à_l'usage_d'AutunThe Ten Books of Histories (Latin: Decem Libri Historiarum), more commonly known as The History of the Franks (Latin: Historia Francorum) are the major work of St Gregory of Tours (538-594 CE).

The first major historian of post-Roman Western Europe, Gregory relates the Christianization of Gaul and the rule of Merovingian Frankish kings down to his own time. He is less concerned with the interests of the Frankish Kingdom as such than with those of the church, and some modern historians have therefore seen the History of the Franks title, which was not Gregory's own, as something of a misnomer.

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Internet Archive: History of the Franks, translated by Ernest Brehaut (1916). Multiple formats.

Internet History Sourcebook: History of the Franks, Books I-X, abridged translation by Ernest Brehaut (1916). HTML format.

Latin Library: Libri Historiarum. Latin text. HTML format.

Wikisource: Historiarum Francorum libri X. Latin text. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

Wikimedia Commons: Division of Gaul  511 CE, map of Gaul at the death of King Clovis.

Wikipedia: Gregory of Tours

YouTube: Clovis and The Franks. YaleCourses. The Early Middle Ages, 284--1000 (HIST 210), with Paul Freedman.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Virgil: The Aeneid

Sallust: The War with Catiline - one of the classical works known to have been read by Gregory.

Martianus Capella

Orosius: Seven Books of History Against the Pagans.

Latin Resources: Online materials for learning Latin.


Seneca: The Madness of Hercules

Picture by Marie-Lan Nguyen - Wikimedia CommonsThe Madness of Hercules (Latin: Hercules Furens) by Seneca the Younger is a Latin adaptation of Euripides' play of the same name. There are some differences in the plot. For example, instead of threatening to kill Hercules' children, the Theban usurper Lycus seeks to marry his wife Megara.

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Free online texts

Internet Archive:  Three tragedies of Seneca: Hercules furens, Troades, Medea, edited by H.M. Kingery (1908). Latin text, multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Ten Tragedies of Seneca. Latin text with English translation by Watson Bradshaw (1902). Multiple formats.

Loebulus. L062N -  Tragedies I: Hercules Furens. Troades. Medea. Hippolytus. Oedipus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Hercules Furens. Latin text. HTML and XML formats.

Theo.com: Herculens Furens, translated by Frank Justus Miller (1917). HTML format.

Wikisource: English translations. HTML and other formats.

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Seneca: Moral Letters to Lucilius

The Death of Seneca, by Manuel Domínguez Sánchez. Via Wikisource.

The Moral Letters to Lucilius (Latin: Ad Lucilium epistulae morales) were composed by the Roman philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca ('The Younger'), during his retirement from the Imperial court in 62-65 AD, a period which ended with his suicide on the orders of the emperor Nero.

The 120 letters, collected in 20 books , were addressed to Seneca's friend Lucilius Junior, then the procurator of Sicily. They amount to informal moral essays, covering subjects such as the nature of the good, happiness and the right attitude to death. It is among the most popular of Seneca's works and as such an important source on Roman stoicism. It's adoption by early Christians contributed to its influence in the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

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Free online texts

Internet Archive: Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales. Vol. I | Vol. IIVol. III. Public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English. PDF and other formats.

Latin Library: Epistulae Morales Ad Lucilium -  HTML format. 

Loebulus. L075 - Seneca -- Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales I: Letters 1-65. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Loebulus. L076 - Seneca -- Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales II: Letters 66-92. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales. HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: Latin - Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium. English - Moral Letters to Lucilius. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Seneca the Younger - Radio discussion with Melvyn Bragg, Mary Beard, Catherine Edwards and Alessandro Schiesaro.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Anger Management - Seneca, podcast by Peter Adamson.

How to be a Stoic: Seneca to Lucilius - Philosophy as a Guide to Life.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Lucius Annaeus Seneca.

Librivox: Moral Letters - public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Seneca.

Stoics.com: Why Seneca's Moral Essays and Moral Epistles?

Wikipedia: Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero: On Duties.

Marcus Aurelius: The Meditations.

Montaigne: Essays.

Latin Resources: Online materials for learning Latin.


Aquinas: Summa Theologica

St Thomas Aquinas by Carlo Crivelli (1476). Wikimedia CommonsThe Summa Theologica or Summa Theologiae by Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) is one of the best known philosophical works of the Middle Ages. Intended as a comprehensive guide to theology for beginning students, the first part of the work deals with God, nature and man, the second part with law and morality, while the third, unfinished part deals with Christ and the sacraments, seen as the route of humanity's return to God, thus giving the whole a cyclical structure.

Summa Theologica at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Christian Classics Ethereal Library: Summa Theologica, translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province (1947). Multiple formats.

Corpus Thomisticum: Summa Theologiae - Latin text. HTML format.

Google Play: STh lt - App containing the text of the Summa from the Corpus Thomisticum Project.

Gutenberg: Summa Theologica - Part I-I | Part I-II | Part II-II | Part III. English translation, multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Summa Theologica, Latin text (1894). Multiple formats.

Intratext: Summa Theologica, English translation. HTML format.

New Advent: The Summa Theologiæ of St. Thomas Aquinas, translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province (1920). HTML format.

Sacred Texts: Summa Theologica, translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province (1947). HTML format.

SummaTheologica.info: Summa Theologica, English translation with onsite Google search. HTML and PDF formats.

University of Notre Dame: Summa Theologica, ongoing translation by Alfred J. Freddoso. PDF format.

Wikisource: Latin text and English translation, by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: St Thomas Aquinas. Melvyn Bragg with Martin Palmer, John Haldane and Annabel Brett.

History Of Philosophy Without Any Gaps: 243 The Ox Heard Round the World - Thomas Aquinas | 244 Everybody Needs Some Body: Aquinas on Soul and Knowledge | 248 - Scott MacDonald on Aquinas, podcast by Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia  of Philosophy: Thomas Aquinas.

Librivox: Summa Theologica, public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Saint Thomas Aquinas.

Wikipedia: Summa Theologica.

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato

Aristotle, referred to by Aquinas as 'The Philosopher': Metaphysics, Ethics.

Cicero

St Paul 'the Apostle'

Dionysius the Areopagite

Augustine 'the Theologian'

Boethius

Ulpian 'the Jurist'

Eriugena

Avicenna

Averroes 'the Commentator'

Al-Ghazali

Anselm 

Abelard

Hugo of St Victor

Peter the Lombard: The Sentences.

Dante: The Divine Comedy - has been described as 'the Summa in verse'.

Latin Resources: Online materials for learning Latin.


Virgil: The Aeneid

The death of Dido, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Wikimedia CommonsThe Aeneid (Latin: Aeneis) is an epic poem by Virgil written between 29 and 19 BCE, during the early years of Augustus' rule of Rome. The appearance of a Roman national epic at around this time may reflect the role Virgil's patron, Maecenas, as cultural advisor to Augustus.

Virgil embellishes existing stories linking the Romans to the Trojans to systematically synthesise Latin traditions with Homeric myth, integrating many other Greek and Roman poetic influences. The legend of Aeneas' exile from Troy is the kernel for a foundation myth that prefigures the unification of Italy, and in the story of Aeneas and Dido, the struggle for supremacy between Rome and Carthage.

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Gutenberg: The Aeneid, translated by John Dryden. | Translation by E. Fairfax Taylor. | Translation by J.W. MacKail. | Aeneidos. Latin text. Multiple formats.

Intratext, Aeneid, translated by John Dryden. HTML format. 

Latin Library: Aeneid. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L063N - Virgil -- Eclogues. Georgics. Aeneid, Books 1-6. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Loebulus. L064N - Virgil -- Aeneid Books 7-12, The Minor Poems. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Online Library of Liberty: Aeneid, translated by John Dryden. Multiple formats.

Perseus: Aeneid, translated by Theodore C. Williams | Translation by John Dryden | Latin text, edited by J.B. Greenough. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: The Aeneid. HTML format, translated by A.S. Kline.

Sacred Texts: The Aeneid, translated by John Dryden. HTML format.

Theoi: Aeneid, Books 1-6, translated by H.R. Fairclough. HTML format.

University of Adelaide: Aeneid, translated by John Dryden. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Aeneid: Full Dryden translation along with other partial and incomplete translations.

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Pliny the Younger: Letters

The Letters (Latin: Epistulae) of Pliny the Younger (61-c.113 CE) stand alongside those of Cicero as one of the most intimate records left to us by any individual from the ancient world, although the fact that Pliny published them during his lifetime should give us pause about how candid a picture they really present.

Pliny was a politically active member of the equestrian order, who rose to become governor of Bithynia under Trajan. His correspondence with the Emperor famously illustrates the centralisation of Roman administration with advice sought and given on matters great and small. This includes a discussion of how to deal with the rising sect of Christianity, an important piece of evidence on the early history of the Church.

The Letters also shed light on Pliny's role in the leading literary circles in the time. A number of them show Pliny in the role of patron to Suetonius, who may have served on his staff in Bithynia. It was in a letter to another historian, Tacitus, that Pliny recounted the death of his uncle Pliny the Elder, the author of the Natural History, while attempting to investigate the eruption of Vesuvius.

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Free online texts

Gutenberg: Letters of Pliny

Glossa.dk: C. Plinii Caecilii Secundi epistulae. Latin text, html format.

Internet Classics Archive/Internet Archive: Pliny's Epistles In Ten Books, translated 1723. HTML format.

Latin Library: Epistularum Libri Decem. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L055 - Pliny the Younger -- Letters I: Books 1-7. Also available at the Internet Archive.
Loebulus. L059 - Pliny the Younger -- Letters II: Books 7-10. Also available at the Internet Archive.

Perseus: Letters. Latin text, html and xml formats.

Pomona.edu (Trevor Chinn): Letters Books 1-5 (complete), Letters Books 6-9 (excerpts) and Book 10 (complete). English text, HTML format.

Wikisource: Epistularum Libri Decem, Latin text, HTML and other formats. Letter II, IX. Latin and English text, HTML and other formats.

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Cicero: Philippics

The Philippics (Latin: Philippicae) are a series of speeches delivered by Cicero in 44-43 BCE attacking Mark Anthony. Their name reflects the fact that they were modelled on speeches of the great Athenian orator Demosthenes against King Philip of Macedon in the 4th Century BCE.

The Philippics were delivered in the period following the assassination of Julius Caesar, when Cicero emerged as a leader of the senatorial party, despite his exclusion from the assassination plot itself. Several of the speeches sought to exploit the emergence of Octavian as a potential rival to Mark Anthony for leadership of the Caesarian party. However, after Octavian and Mark Anthony formed the second triumvirate, Anthony insisted on Cicero's inclusion in the  proscriptions being drawn up against their political opponents. When Cicero was caught and excuted, Anthony notoriously ordered the hands that wrote the Philippics cut off.

The Philippics at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: Philippics, translated by Walter Ker. Multiple formats, Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Latin Library: Philippicae. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L189 - Cicero - Philippics. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: The fourteen orations against Marcus Antonius (Philippics), translated by C. D. Yonge (1903). HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: In M. Antonium Philippicae. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

Librivox: The Philippics - public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: Cicero - Philippicae.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero on Rhetoric

Orator - Brutus - On the Orator.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Cicero: Letters to Quintus

The Letters to Quintus (Latin: Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem) is a collection of letters from the Roman writer and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero to his brother Quintus, written mainly between 59 and 54 BCE. Some editions of the collection include a letter from Quintus On Running for the Consulship (Latin: De petitione consulatus).

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Free online texts

Latin Library: Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L230N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends III: Books 13-16. To His Brother Quintus. To Brutus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Letters to and from Quintus. Latin text, HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem. Latin text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: Letters to his Brother Quintus, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh (1900). Multiple formats.

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Cicero: Letters to Friends

The Letters to Friends (Latin: Epistulae ad Familiares) is a collection of letters from the Roman writer and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero to various friends and relations, published by Cicero's secretary Tiro. Their rediscovery in the fourteenth century had  significant impact on renaissance humanism.

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Latin Library: Epistulae ad FamiliaresLatin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L205N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends I: Books 1-6. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.
Loebulus. L216N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends II: Books 7-12. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.
Loebulus. L230N - Cicero -- Letters to His Friends III: Books 13-16. To His Brother Quintus. To Brutus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Epistulae ad Familiares. Latin text, HTML and XML format.

Wikisource: Epistulae ad Familiares. Partial Latin text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: Letters to Friends, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh (1900). Multiple formats.

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