Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar: The Spanish War

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The Spanish War (Latin: Bellum Hispaniense or De Bello Hispaniensi) is a sequel to Caesar's commentaries, probably drafted by a junior officer. It recounts Caesar's campaign in Spain in 45 BC against the sons of Pompey and Labienus, his own former general in Gaul. Caesar's victory at Munda marked the final battle of the civil wars.

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 Free online Texts

Internet Classics Archive: The Spanish Wars, Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. HTML and TXT formats.

LacusCurtius: The Spanish War. Latin text with translation by A.G. Way. HTML format.

Latin Library: De Bello Hispaniensi. Latin text. HTML format.

Wikisource: Julius Caesar: The Spanish War. (attributed; possibly written by Aulus Hirtius or Gaius Oppius), translated by William Alexander McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Online with PDF/MOBI/EPUB downloads available

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Julius Caesar: The African War.

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The African War (Latin: Bellum Africum or De Bello Africo) is a sequel to Caesar's commentaries dealing with the African campaign of 47-46 BC. It is generally thought to have been drafted by one of Caesar's officers.

The African War at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

 

Free online texts

Internet Classics Archive: The African Wars, translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. HTML and TXT formats.

LacusCurtius: The African War. Latin text and English translation by A.G. Way. HTML format.

Latin Library: De Bello Africo. Latin text. HTML format.

Wikisource: Julius Caesar: The African War. (attributed; possibly written by Aulus Hirtius or Gaius Oppius), translated by William Alexander McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Online with PDF/MOBI/EPUB downloads available.

Other Resources

HistoryNet: Gaius Julius Caesar’s African Campaign - The Campaign to Destroy the Allies of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, by Jonas Goldstein.

Wikipedia: De Bello Africo.

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Julius Caesar: The Alexandrian War

Butler1851-EgyptThe Alexandrian War (Latin: De Bello Alexandrino or Bellum Alexandrinum) is a sequel to Caesar's Commentaries on the Civil War, and is generally thought to have been ghostwritten by his lieutenant Aulus Hirtius. The book opens after the battle of Pharsalus, with Caesar pursuing the defeated Pompey to Alexandria, only to find his enemy had been murdered by the Egyptians. Caesar subsequently chose to ally himself with Cleopatra, sister of the Pharoah, Ptolemy XIII, enduring a siege which, according to Plutarch, caused the infamous burning of the library of Alexandria.

After victory in the Battle of the Nile in 47 BC, Caesar turned his attention to Asia. The book concludes with victory over Pontus at the battle of Zena, which prompted Caesar's famous remark 'veni, vidi, vici' (I came, I saw, I conquered). 

The Alexandrian War at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

 

Free online texts

Internet Classics Archive: The Alexandrian Wars, translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. HTML and TXT formats.

LacusCurtius: Hirtius - The Alexandrian War, translated by A.G. Way. HTML format.

Latin Library: De Bello Alexandrino. Latin text, HTML format.

Wikisource: Julius Caesar: The Alexandrian War. (attributed; possibly written by Aulus Hirtius or Gaius Oppius), translated by William Alexander McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Online with PDF/MOBI/EPUB downloads available.

Other Resources

Wikipedia: De Bello Alexandrino.

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Julius Caesar: Commentaries on the Civil War

Txu-pcl-maps-oclc-70574898-italiae-pars-media-1851The Commentaries on the Civil War are Julius Caesar's own account of his conflict with Pompey and his allies in the Roman Senate during 48-49BC. The famous 'crossing of the Rubicon' is downplayed in Caesar's version of events, presumably because he did not wish to dwell on the constitutionality of his own actions as a Roman general bringing his army into Italy. instead, the emphasis is placed on his opponents responsibility for precipitating events by their attacks on the people's tribune, Mark Anthony, who fled to Caesar's army for protection.

The bulk of the narrative is concerned with the campaigns which followed. Caesar quickly swept the Pompeians to the heel of Italy, besieging them at Brundisium, from where their main force escaped across the Adriatic. Caesar and his lieutenants then turned to deal with Pompey's armies and allies in a variety of other theatres including Spain, Massilia in southern Gaul, Sicily and North Africa.

The decisive campaign in the Balkans saw Caesar facing defeat at Dyrrachium before his ultimate victory at Pharsalus. The Commentaries end with Caesar's army in Egypt following the murder of the exiled Pompey by King Ptolemy. Subsequent events are the subject of the Commentaries on the Alexandrian War.

Despite his apparently objective style, Caesar's propaganda purpose is more obvious than in the Gallic War, notably in his description of the wrangling for Roman political offices in the Pompeian camp in the days before the Battle of Pharsalus.

Viewers of the BBC/HBO drama Rome, in which Caesar is played by Ciaran Hinds, will recognise many of the events described as the backdrop to its first season.

The Civil War at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free Online Texts

Gutenberg: "De Bello Gallico" and Other Commentaries by Julius Caesar, translated by W.A. McDevitte. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: The Civil Wars, Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Online version with downloadable .txt version.

LacusCurtius: Caesar - The Civil Wars. Online version of English translation by A.G. Peskett, 1914.

Latin Library: C. IVLI CAESARIS COMMENTARIORVM DE BELLO CIVILI - Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L039 - Caesar -- The Civil Wars. PDF of public domain Loeb edition. Latin with an English translation by A.G. Peskett, 1914.

Perseus: Latin text (Du Pontet ed., 1901). English translation (Duncan,1856). HTML texts.

Textkit: Caesar's Civil War in Latin, edited by Charles Moberly. Pdf file. Seems to be missing first page of the Latin text.

Wikisource: Commentaries on the Civil War. HTML text.

Other Resources

BBC Radio Great Lives: Julius Caesar. Matthew Parris with Barry Cunliffe.

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: Julius Caesar. Melvyn Bragg with Christopher Pelling, Catherine Steel and Maria Wyke.

Dickinson College Commentaries: Caesar bibliography.

Internet Archive: Commentaries of Julius Caesar - audiobooks of The Gallic War and The Civil War.

Librivox: De Bello Gallico Libri Septem - public domain audiobook in Latin.

MCGoodwin.net: Summary of the Commentaries on the Civil War by Michael Goodwin.

Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection: Maps from Dr. Butler's Atlas of Ancient Geography by Samuel Butler, London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1851. A number of these maps are useful for following the campaigns of the Civil War.

Wikipedia: Commentarii de Bello Civili.

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Julius Caesar: Commentaries on the Gallic War

ButlerGaulCaesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War are his account of his campaigns of 58-50 BC. The apparently objective, third person style of the commentaries probably conceals a propaganda purpose - shoring up Caesar's position in the political struggles at Rome which would lead to the conflict with Pompey and the Senate recorded in his later Commentaries on the Civil War.

The Commentaries are notably as a description of Celtic Gaul, and an early account of much of Western Europe. Caesar's campaigns took him across the Rhine into Germany and across the channel into Britain, and often involved diplomatic alliance-building as much as fighting, at least until the general revolt of the Gauls under Vercingetorix which ended with the climactic siege of Alesia. An eighth book, by Caesar's lieutenant, the later consul Aulus Hirtius, covers the period between Alesia and the Civil War.

The Gallic War is often the first authentic text used in introducing students to Latin, much as Xenophon's Anabasis is for Ancient Greek. Some of the free resources below may be useful for that purpose notably the bilingual Loeb and Perseus texts, and the Memrise flashcard app. Dr Butler's 1851 map is still useful for following the narrative.

The Gallic War at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

 Free online texts

Gutenberg: "De Bello Gallico" and Other Commentaries by Julius Caesar, translated by Thomas De Quincey. Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: C. Iuli Caesaris De Bello Gallico by Julius Caesar. Latin text. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: The Gallic Wars, by Julius Caesar, translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. HTML and text formats.

Latin Library: C. IVLI CAESARIS COMMENTARIORVM DE BELLO GALLICO LIBER PRIMVS. Latin text. HTML format.

Loebulus. L072 - Caesar -- The Gallic War. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Latin text (T Rice Holmes ed., 1914). English translation (McDevitte & Bohn, 1869). HTML texts.

Wikisource: Commentaries on the Gallic War, Online text.

Other Resources

BBC Radio Great Lives: Julius Caesar. Matthew Parris with Barry Cunliffe.

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: Julius Caesar. Melvyn Bragg with Christopher Pelling, Catherine Steel and Maria Wyke.

Dickinson College Commentaries: Selections from the Gallic War - Latin text, notes, vocabulary, and media for selections from The Gallic War by Julius Caesar, intended for readers of Latin. 

Gallia: Map from Dr. Butler's Atlas of Ancient Geography by Samuel Butler, London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1851.Perry-Castañeda Library
Map Collection.

Librivox: Commentaries on the Gallic War - public domain audiobook.

Memrise: AP Latin Caesar, by billclausen. One of a number of relevant vocabulary courses on the site.

Wikipedia: Commentarii de Bello Gallico

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