History

Gregory of Tours: History of the Franks

Saint_Grégoire_Sacramentaire_de_Marmoutier_à_l'usage_d'AutunThe Ten Books of Histories (Latin: Decem Libri Historiarum), more commonly known as The History of the Franks (Latin: Historia Francorum) are the major work of St Gregory of Tours (538-594 CE).

The first major historian of post-Roman Western Europe, Gregory relates the Christianization of Gaul and the rule of Merovingian Frankish kings down to his own time. He is less concerned with the interests of the Frankish Kingdom as such than with those of the church, and some modern historians have therefore seen the History of the Franks title, which was not Gregory's own, as something of a misnomer.

The History of the Franks at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: History of the Franks, translated by Ernest Brehaut (1916). Multiple formats.

Internet History Sourcebook: History of the Franks, Books I-X, abridged translation by Ernest Brehaut (1916). HTML format.

Latin Library: Libri Historiarum. Latin text. HTML format.

Wikisource: Historiarum Francorum libri X. Latin text. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

Wikimedia Commons: Division of Gaul  511 CE, map of Gaul at the death of King Clovis.

Wikipedia: Gregory of Tours

YouTube: Clovis and The Franks. YaleCourses. The Early Middle Ages, 284--1000 (HIST 210), with Paul Freedman.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Virgil: The Aeneid

Sallust: The War with Catiline - one of the classical works known to have been read by Gregory.

Martianus Capella

Orosius: Seven Books of History Against the Pagans.

Latin Resources: Online materials for learning Latin.


Machiavelli: Discourses on Livy

OrigenDeLaRepublicaRomana_CastoPlasenciaThe Discourses on the First Ten Book of Titus Livius, (Italian: Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio), often known simply as The Discourses, were written by Niccolo Machiavelli in the second decade of the sixteenth century, in the sme period as his most famous book, The Prince. In contrast to the monarchical concerns of that work, Machiavelli focuses in The Discourses on the political of republican government, through a commentary on Livy's account of the early history of Rome. Many scholars have argued that The Discourses provide a fuller picture of Machiavelli's political beliefs than does the Prince.

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Free online texts

Biblioteca Philosophica: Discorsi sopra la Prima Deca Di Tito Livio. Italian text. HTML format.
Gutenberg: Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livius, translated by Ninian Hill Thomson. Multiple formats. 
Internet Archive: Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio. Vol I | Vol II. Italian text. Multiple formats.
Internet Archive: The Prince and the Discourses. The Discourses translated by Christian E. Detmold. With an Introduction by Max Lerner. Modern Library (1940). Multiple formats.
Marxists.org: Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius, translated by Christian Detmold (1882). HTML format.
Online Library of Liberty: Niccolo Machiavelli, The Historical, Political, and Diplomatic Writings, vol. 2 (The Prince, Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius, Thoughts of a Statesman). Translated by Christian Detmold. Multiple formats.
University of Adelaide: Discourses of Niccolo Machiavelli on the First Ten Books of Titus Livy. English translation. Multiple formats.
Wikisource: Italian text and English translation by Henry Neville. HTML and other formats.

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Herodotus: The Histories

Greece_persian_war_500_479The Histories of Herodotus is the founding work of the Greek historical tradition, documenting the rise of the Persian Empire, the Ionian revolt and the subsequent war between the Persians and the Greeks led by Athens and Sparta. Through his frequent digressions on the various cultures of the known world Herodotus, known as the 'father of history', imparted to the discipline a broad anthropological focus, rivalling the predominantly political and military interests of his successor, Thucydides.

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Free Online Texts

Gutenberg: Herodotus author page. Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: The History of Herodotus, Volume 1. Translated by G.C. Macaulay.

Gutenberg: The History of Herodotus, Volume 2. Translated by G.C. Macaulay.

Inquiries by Herodotus, translated by Shlomo Felberbaum, with photographs by Shane Solow. Online text.

Internet Archive: Herodotus.

Internet Classics Archive, The History of Herodotus, translated by George Rawlinson.

Loebulus. L117 - Herodotus -- Herodotus I: Books 1-2. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. 

Loebulus. L118 - Herodotus -- Herodotus II: Books 3-4. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Loebulus. L119 - Herodotus -- Herodotus III: Books 5-7. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. 

Loebulus. L120 - Herodotus -- Herodotus IV: Books 8-9. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Pax Librorum: The Histories by Herodotus. Pdf download.

Perseus: Herodotus, Greek text (Godley ed., 1920). English translation (Godley, 1920). Online texts.

Sacred Texts: The History of Herodotus, parallel English/Greek, translated by G. C. Macaulay, (1890). Online with zipped text download.

 Wikisource: The Histories  - Online Translations by A. D. Godley, George Rawlinson and G. C. Macaulay. Downloads via Book Creator.

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Mommsen: The History of Rome

The History of Rome (German: Römische Geschichte) by Theodor Mommsen is one of the most important works of nineteenth century classical scholarship. Mommsen moved beyond the criticism of literary sources pioneered by Niebuhr, rejecting much of the traditional narrative of Rome's foundation as mythical, and introducing other forms of evidence such as inscriptions painstakingly collected from around the former Roman world. Still occasionally cited today, Mommsen's history combines an extended narrative of Rome's internal and external political development from its earliest years to the reign of Augustus, with frequent digressions on the culture and society of the republic and its neighbours. 

E.H. Carr conjectured that Mommsen's admiration for Caesar reflected his frustration with the failure of the revolution of 1848 in Germany. It may be that very sense of involvement that brings this work to life.

The History of Rome at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

ClassicLiterature.co.uk: History of Rome. English text, HTML format.

Gutenberg: The History of Rome (Volumes 1-5). English text, Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The History of Rome, translated by W.P Dickson - Vol I - Vol II - Vol III - Vol IV - Vol V. English text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: The History of Rome (Mommsen). English text, HTML format. Currently first few chapters only.

Zeno.org: Römische Geschichte. German text, html format.

Other Resources

Librivox: Römische Geschichte. German language audiobook.

Wikipedia: Theodor Mommsen - History of Rome (Mommsen).

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Polybius: The Histories

Livy: From the Founding of the City

Butler: Atlas of Ancient Geography.

 


Butler: Atlas of Ancient Geography

ButlerOldWorldThe Atlas of Ancient Geography by Dr Samuel Butler was published in 1851, so no doubt it is obsolete for serious academic purposes, but I have yet to find a classical text, or classical scholar, that it couldn't illuminate. From Homer's Iliad, to Livy's or Mommsen's History of Rome, the maps below, downloaded to my desktop and tablet, are always helpful in understanding what's going on. 

The files are hosted at the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin, who are be it noted, seeking donations to upload many other maps from the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection - a very worthy cause.

Maps

Africa (3.2 MB) | Armenia, Colchis, Iberia, and Albania (3.2 MB) | Asia Minor (3.9 MB) | Britannia (3.7 MB) | Egypt (3.3 MB) | Orbis Veteribus Notus (Europe, Asia and North Africa) (3.5 MB) | Gallia (France) (4.0 MB) | Germany (3.4 MB) | Greece and Islands (3.6 MB) | Greece and the Peloponnese (4.3 MB) | Greece and the Peloponnesus, South (3.8 MB) | Islands in the Aegean Sea (4.5 MB) | Italy, Central (3.8 MB) | Italy, North (4.1 MB) | Italy, South (3.7 MB) | Macedonia, Moesia, Thracia, and Dacia (4.1 MB) | Mauritania, Numidia, and Africa (3.2 MB) | Oriens (Persia) (3.6 MB) | Palestine, Times of Christ and His Apostles (3.7 MB) | Palestine, Times of Judges and Kings (3.2 MB) | Rome (3.9 MB) | Spain (3.9 MB)
Syria, Mesopotamia, and Assyria (3.0 MB) | Vindelicia, Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and Illyricum (3.0 MB) 


Aristotle: The Athenian Constitution

The Athenian Constitution (Greek: Αθηναίων Πολιτεία) is thought to be the only text by Aristotle rediscovered in modern times, based on papyri recovered in the Nineteenth Century. It may be the last remnant of a project Aristotle is said to have initiated to collect the constitutions of all the Greek states.

The work should not be confused with another of the same title, once thought to be by Xenophon, but now generally attributed to an anonymous 'Old Oligarch'.

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Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Athenian Constitution, translated by Frederic G. Kenyon. Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: Αθηναίων Πολιτεία by Aristotle. Greek text. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Works of Aristotle Vol X: Politica, Oeconomica, Atheniensum Respublica, the latter translated by Frederic G. Kenyon. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: The Athenian Constitution, translated by Frederic G. Kenyon. HTML and TXT formats.

Internet History Sourcebook: The Athenian Constitution, translated by Frederic G. Kenyon. TXT format.

Loebulus. L285 - Aristotle -- Athenian Constitution. Eudemian Ethics. Virtues and Vices. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text, edited y Frederic G. Kenyon. English text, translated by H. Rackham. HTML and XML formats.

University of Adelaide: The Athenian Constitution, translated by Frederic G. Kenyon. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: The Athenian Constitution, translated by Frederic G. Kenyon. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

Librivox: The Constitution of Athens - public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: Constitution of the Athenians.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato: The Republic, The Laws.

Aristotle: The Politics

Xenophon: The Spartan Constitution.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Jordanes: Getica

The Getica otherwise known as the The Origin and Deeds of the Goths (Latin: De Origine Actibusque Getarum) is a mid-sixth century Latin work by Jordanes, apparently intended as a summary of a lost work on the Goths by Cassiodorus.

The Getica at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, trans. Charles C. Mierow. multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Gothic History of Jordanes, translated by Charles Mierow (1915). Multiple formats.

The Latin Library: Iordanis De Origine Actibusque Getarum. Latin text, HTML format.

Northvegr: The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, trans. Charles C. Mierow. HTML format.

University of Calgary: The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, trans. Charles C. Mierow. HTML format.

Wikisource: The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, trans. Charles C. Mierow. HTML format.

Other Resources

Georgetown University: The Aims of Jordanes, by James J. O'Donnell, Historia, 31(1982) 223-240.

Wikipedia: Getica.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Tacitus: Germania - The first major account of the Germanic peoples.

Orosius: Seven Books of History Against the Pagans - used as a source by Jordanes.

The Getica at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy


Nennius: Historia Brittonum

The Historia Brittonum, or History of the Britons, traditionally ascribed to Nennius, was probably written in the early ninth century. Its account of events in early Britain provided much of material for later Arthurian legend.

Historia Brittonum at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: History of the Britons, multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: Six old English chronicles. Ethelwerd's Chronicle. Asser's Life of Alfred. Geoffrey of Monmouth's British history. Gildas. Nennius. And Richard of Cirencester, translated by J. A. Giles. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Historia Brittonum, Latin text. History of the Britons, English text, translated by W. Gunn & J. A. Giles. HTML format.

Yale Law School Avalon Project: History Of The Britons, translated by J. A. Giles.

Other Resources

Internet Archive: Nennius vindicatus. Über entstehung, geschichte und quellen der Historia Brittonum, by Heinrich Zimmer (1893). German language commentary.

Librivox: History of the Britons - public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: Nennius - Historia Brittonum.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Gildas: On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain.

Bede: The Ecclesiastical History of the English People.


Xenophon: The Spartan Constitution

Lycurgus of Sparta, by Merry-Joseph Blondel. Wikimedia CommonsThe Spartan Constitution or Constitution of the Lacedaemonians (Greek: Λακεδαιμονίων Πολιτεία, Latin: De republica Lacedaemoniorum) by Xenophon is the most comprehensive extant account of Spartan institutions. As an oligarchically-inclined exile from Athens, who had fought alongside Spartan generals in the Persian Expedition, and later against Athens at the battle of Coronea, Xenophon was a well-placed and highly sympathetic observer of Spartan customs.

The Spartan Constitution at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Polity of the Athenians and the Lacedaemonians by Xenophon. Multiple formats.

Loebulus: L183 - Xenophon -- Scripta Minora: Hiero. Agesilaus. Constitution of the Lacedaemonians. Ways and Means. Cavalry Commander. Art of Horsemanship. On Hunting. Constitution of the Athenians. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also available from the Internet Archive.

Perseus: Greek text (Oxford, 1920). English text translated by E. C. Marchant, G. W. Bowersock (1925).

Wikisource: Λακεδαιμονίων Πολιτεία - Greek text. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: Xenophon. Melvyn Bragg with Paul Cartledge, Edith Hall and Simon Goldhill.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Xenophon.

Leo Strauss Center: Xenophon, Winter 1963 - audio of lectures on works including The Spartan Constitution.

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Xenophon: Hellenica, Anabasis, Agesilaus.

Aristotle: The Politics, The Athenian Constitution

Plutarch: Parallel Lives - includes lives of a number of Spartan statesmen: Lycurgus, Lysander, Agesilaus, Agis and Cleomenes.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Orosius: Seven Books of History Against the Pagans

Seven Books of History Against the Pagans (Latin: Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII) is a work of universal history written in the early fifth century by Paulus Orosius, a Galician Catholic priest and student of St Augustine. The History Against the Pagans shares a common aim with Augustine's City of God, in seeking to vindicate Christianity as a positive development in human history, at a time when pagans were blaming the new religion for the sack of Rome by Alaric.

The work enjoyed immense popularity in the Middle Ages, being translated into Old English, reputedly by King Alfred, and into Arabic in Andalusia.

Orosius at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.
Free online texts

Attalus.org: Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII. Latin HTML text.

Documenta Catholica Omnia: Historiarum Libri Septem. Latin PDF text.

Google Sites/Demontortoise2000: A History Against the Pagans. English HTML text.

Internet Archive: King Alfred's Orosius (Early English Texts Society, 1883). Latin and Old English, multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII (1574). Latin text, multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII (Syvert Haverkamp, 1857). Latin text, multiple formats.

Internet Archive:  Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII (Teubner edition, 1889). Latin text, multiple formats.

Latin Library: Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII. Latin HTML text.

Unversity of Oxford Text Archive: Alfred's Orosius. Old English, ZIP text file.

Other Resources

Academia.edu: The Orosius in King Alfred’s Court: A Ninth-Century Historical Renaissance, by David Carlton.

Ancient History Encyclopedia: Orosius, by Joshua J. Mark.

The Baheyeldin Dynasty: Biography - Paul Orosius/Orosius as a Source for Ibn Khaldun.

Catholic Encyclopedia: Paulus Orosius.

Wikipedia: Orosius.

Orosius at Amazon.com, .uk, .fr, .de, .ca.

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Augustine's City of God - The two texts are closely related as defences of Christianity in the wake of the sack of Rome.

Orosius used a range of sources including: Livy, Caesar's Gallic War, Tacitus, Suetonius, Florus, Eutropius, Justin, Jerome's translation of Eusebius' Chronicle and Rufinus' translation of Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History.