Classical Scholarship

Machiavelli: Discourses on Livy

OrigenDeLaRepublicaRomana_CastoPlasenciaThe Discourses on the First Ten Book of Titus Livius, (Italian: Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio), often known simply as The Discourses, were written by Niccolo Machiavelli in the second decade of the sixteenth century, in the sme period as his most famous book, The Prince. In contrast to the monarchical concerns of that work, Machiavelli focuses in The Discourses on the political of republican government, through a commentary on Livy's account of the early history of Rome. Many scholars have argued that The Discourses provide a fuller picture of Machiavelli's political beliefs than does the Prince.

The Discourses at Amazon: United StatesUnited Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Biblioteca Philosophica: Discorsi sopra la Prima Deca Di Tito Livio. Italian text. HTML format.
Gutenberg: Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livius, translated by Ninian Hill Thomson. Multiple formats. 
Internet Archive: Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio. Vol I | Vol II. Italian text. Multiple formats.
Internet Archive: The Prince and the Discourses. The Discourses translated by Christian E. Detmold. With an Introduction by Max Lerner. Modern Library (1940). Multiple formats.
Marxists.org: Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius, translated by Christian Detmold (1882). HTML format.
Online Library of Liberty: Niccolo Machiavelli, The Historical, Political, and Diplomatic Writings, vol. 2 (The Prince, Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius, Thoughts of a Statesman). Translated by Christian Detmold. Multiple formats.
University of Adelaide: Discourses of Niccolo Machiavelli on the First Ten Books of Titus Livy. English translation. Multiple formats.
Wikisource: Italian text and English translation by Henry Neville. HTML and other formats.

Continue reading "Machiavelli: Discourses on Livy" »


Burnet: Early Greek Philosophy

Pythagoreans celebrate sunrise by Fyodor BronnikovEarly Greek Philosophy by John Burnet, first published in 1892, is a survey of Presocratic Greek thinkers. Individuals and schools covered include Thales and the Milesians, Heraclitus, Parmenides and the Eleatics, the Pythagoreans, Anaxagoras, Empedocles and Leucippus.

Burnet was a distinguished scholar of Plato, and many of his editions remain authoritative today. He saw Socratic philosophy as a development from the problems of the earlier cosmologists, despite the protestations of disinterest in natural philosophy recorded in Plato's Apology, believing that Socrates had been a disciple of Archelaus in his youth.

Early Greek Philosophy at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Evansville.edu: John Burnet's Early Greek Philosophy. HTML format.

Hathi Trust: Early Greek Philosophy, by John Burnet. PDF format. 

Internet Archive: Early Greek Philosophy, by John Burnet (1892 edition). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Early Greek Philosophy, by John Burnet (1908 edition). Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Early Greek Philosophy,by John Burnet (1920 edition). Multiple formats.

Peithô's Web: Early Greek Philosophy, by John Burnet (1920 edition). HTML format.

Plato.spbu.ru: Early Greek Philosophy, by John Burnet (1920 edition). PDF format.

Other Resources

Wikipedia: John Burnet (classicist).

Continue reading "Burnet: Early Greek Philosophy" »


Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks

The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896) by the Oxford classicist Arthur Elam Haigh is a comprehensive study of the evolution of the tragic form, covering its origins in the hymns to Dionysus, known as dithyrambs, the activities of the major tragedians of the 5th Century BCE, and later Hellenistic developments at Alexandria and Rome. Although doubtless obsolete as an academic text, Haigh's work has been widely cited over the years, and may still be of interest to the general reader.

The Tragic Drama of the Greeks at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Hathi Trust: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks, by A.E. Haigh (1896). PDF format.

Internet Archive: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks, by A. E. Haigh (1896). Multiple formats. As well as this upload from Harvard, there is one from the University of Toronto.

Wikisource: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks, by A. E. Haigh (1896). Incomplete, not much more than the contents at the moment.

Other Resources

Wikipedia: Arthur Elam Haigh.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Category pages for Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides.


Mommsen: The History of Rome

The History of Rome (German: Römische Geschichte) by Theodor Mommsen is one of the most important works of nineteenth century classical scholarship. Mommsen moved beyond the criticism of literary sources pioneered by Niebuhr, rejecting much of the traditional narrative of Rome's foundation as mythical, and introducing other forms of evidence such as inscriptions painstakingly collected from around the former Roman world. Still occasionally cited today, Mommsen's history combines an extended narrative of Rome's internal and external political development from its earliest years to the reign of Augustus, with frequent digressions on the culture and society of the republic and its neighbours. 

E.H. Carr conjectured that Mommsen's admiration for Caesar reflected his frustration with the failure of the revolution of 1848 in Germany. It may be that very sense of involvement that brings this work to life.

The History of Rome at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

ClassicLiterature.co.uk: History of Rome. English text, HTML format.

Gutenberg: The History of Rome (Volumes 1-5). English text, Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The History of Rome, translated by W.P Dickson - Vol I - Vol II - Vol III - Vol IV - Vol V. English text, multiple formats.

Wikisource: The History of Rome (Mommsen). English text, HTML format. Currently first few chapters only.

Zeno.org: Römische Geschichte. German text, html format.

Other Resources

Librivox: Römische Geschichte. German language audiobook.

Wikipedia: Theodor Mommsen - History of Rome (Mommsen).

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Polybius: The Histories

Livy: From the Founding of the City

Butler: Atlas of Ancient Geography.

 


Butler: Atlas of Ancient Geography

ButlerOldWorldThe Atlas of Ancient Geography by Dr Samuel Butler was published in 1851, so no doubt it is obsolete for serious academic purposes, but I have yet to find a classical text, or classical scholar, that it couldn't illuminate. From Homer's Iliad, to Livy's or Mommsen's History of Rome, the maps below, downloaded to my desktop and tablet, are always helpful in understanding what's going on. 

The files are hosted at the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin, who are be it noted, seeking donations to upload many other maps from the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection - a very worthy cause.

Maps

Africa (3.2 MB) | Armenia, Colchis, Iberia, and Albania (3.2 MB) | Asia Minor (3.9 MB) | Britannia (3.7 MB) | Egypt (3.3 MB) | Orbis Veteribus Notus (Europe, Asia and North Africa) (3.5 MB) | Gallia (France) (4.0 MB) | Germany (3.4 MB) | Greece and Islands (3.6 MB) | Greece and the Peloponnese (4.3 MB) | Greece and the Peloponnesus, South (3.8 MB) | Islands in the Aegean Sea (4.5 MB) | Italy, Central (3.8 MB) | Italy, North (4.1 MB) | Italy, South (3.7 MB) | Macedonia, Moesia, Thracia, and Dacia (4.1 MB) | Mauritania, Numidia, and Africa (3.2 MB) | Oriens (Persia) (3.6 MB) | Palestine, Times of Christ and His Apostles (3.7 MB) | Palestine, Times of Judges and Kings (3.2 MB) | Rome (3.9 MB) | Spain (3.9 MB)
Syria, Mesopotamia, and Assyria (3.0 MB) | Vindelicia, Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and Illyricum (3.0 MB)