Aristotelianism

Aquinas: Summa Theologica

St Thomas Aquinas by Carlo Crivelli (1476). Wikimedia CommonsThe Summa Theologica or Summa Theologiae by Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) is one of the best known philosophical works of the Middle Ages. Intended as a comprehensive guide to theology for beginning students, the first part of the work deals with God, nature and man, the second part with law and morality, while the third, unfinished part deals with Christ and the sacraments, seen as the route of humanity's return to God, thus giving the whole a cyclical structure.

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Free online texts

Christian Classics Ethereal Library: Summa Theologica, translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province (1947). Multiple formats.

Corpus Thomisticum: Summa Theologiae - Latin text. HTML format.

Google Play: STh lt - App containing the text of the Summa from the Corpus Thomisticum Project.

Gutenberg: Summa Theologica - Part I-I | Part I-II | Part II-II | Part III. English translation, multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Summa Theologica, Latin text (1894). Multiple formats.

Intratext: Summa Theologica, English translation. HTML format.

New Advent: The Summa Theologiæ of St. Thomas Aquinas, translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province (1920). HTML format.

Sacred Texts: Summa Theologica, translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province (1947). HTML format.

SummaTheologica.info: Summa Theologica, English translation with onsite Google search. HTML and PDF formats.

University of Notre Dame: Summa Theologica, ongoing translation by Alfred J. Freddoso. PDF format.

Wikisource: Latin text and English translation, by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: St Thomas Aquinas. Melvyn Bragg with Martin Palmer, John Haldane and Annabel Brett.

History Of Philosophy Without Any Gaps: 243 The Ox Heard Round the World - Thomas Aquinas | 244 Everybody Needs Some Body: Aquinas on Soul and Knowledge | 248 - Scott MacDonald on Aquinas, podcast by Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia  of Philosophy: Thomas Aquinas.

Librivox: Summa Theologica, public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Saint Thomas Aquinas.

Wikipedia: Summa Theologica.

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato

Aristotle, referred to by Aquinas as 'The Philosopher': Metaphysics, Ethics.

Cicero

St Paul 'the Apostle'

Dionysius the Areopagite

Augustine 'the Theologian'

Boethius

Ulpian 'the Jurist'

Eriugena

Avicenna

Averroes 'the Commentator'

Al-Ghazali

Anselm 

Abelard

Hugo of St Victor

Peter the Lombard: The Sentences.

Dante: The Divine Comedy - has been described as 'the Summa in verse'.

Latin Resources: Online materials for learning Latin.


Aristotle (spurious): on Colors

On Colors or On Colours (Greek Περὶ χρωμάτων, Latin De Coloribus) is a treatise traditionally attributed to Aristotle, but now sometimes thought to be by Theophrastus or Strato, who succeeded him in turn as heads of his philosophical school, the Lyceum. The book's argument, that all colors are derived from the mixture of black and white, was an important influence on subsequent color theories until the time of Newton.

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Free online and downloadable texts

LacusCurtius: On Colors - Greek text and English translation. HTML format.

Loebulus. L307 - Aristotle - Minor Works. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also available at the Internet Archive.

Wikisource: Περί χρωμάτων - Greek text. HTML format.

Other Resources

New Republic: Does Color Even Exist? by Malcolm Harris 22 May 2015.

Open Book - Rare Books Department of Special Collections at the J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah -Book of the Week — De coloribus libellus, 5 December 2016.

Princeton University Press: Why the Sky is Blue: Discovering the Color of Life, by Götz Hoeppe. Chapter Two - Of Philosophers and the Color Blue.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Controversies Surrounding Aristotle's Theory of Perception, by Christopher Shields.

Wikipedia: On Colors

University of Massachussets - Amherst: Greek Color Theory and the Four Elements (2000). Chapter Two - Greek Color Theory by J.L. Benson.

Youtube: On Colours, by Aristotle. audiobook read by Geoffrey Edwards

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato: Meno - mentions Empedocles' theory of color.

Plato: Timaeus

Aristotle: Meteorology - discusses the rainbow.

Aristotle: Sense and Sensibilia

Aristotle: De Anima

Theophrastus

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Porphyry: The Isagoge

The Isagoge or Introduction by Porphyry is a commentary on Aristotle's Categories, which itself became a key logical text of the Middle Ages, being translated into Arabic via Syriac, and into Latin by Boethius. Along with the Categories and On Interpretation, it formed part of the Ars Vetus or Old Logic, the works available in the Medieval Latin West prior to the translation of Aristotle's other logical works.

The medieval concept of the Porphyrian Tree was inspired by Porphyry's presentation of Aristotle's system of  classification. Porphyry bracketed the issue of whether Aristotelian genera and species were merely concepts used to describe particular things or had independent reality, but his formulation of the question was, via Boethius, influential for the medieval debate about universals. 

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Free online texts

Forum Romanum: Isagoge, translatio Boethii. Latin text, HTML format.

Internet Archive: Porphyrii Isagoge et in Aristotelis Categorias commentarium, edited by Adolfus Busse (1887). Greek text, multiple formats.

The Logic Museum: Isagoge. Greek/Latin/English parallel text, HTML format.

Prometheus Trust: The Introduction of Porphyry to Aristotle's Categories, translated by Thomas Taylor. HTML format.

Tertullian.org: Introduction (or Isagoge) to the logical Categories of Aristotle, translated by Octavius Freire Owen (1853). HTML format. (see also the preface).

Universitatea Babeş-Bolya: Isagoge. Greek text, PDF format. Archived at the Internet Archive.

Universitatea Babeş-Bolya: Isagoge, translatio Boethii. Latin text, HTML format. Archived at the Internet Archive.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: King of Animals: Porphyry - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Neoplatonism.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Porphyry.

The Logic Museum: Isagoge.

Wikipedia: Porphyry (Philosopher) - Isagoge -Porphyryean Tree.

Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

The Enneads, Porphyry's account of the teachings of Plotinus.

Aristotle's Categories and other works of the Organon.


Cicero: On the Ends of Good and Evil

On the Ends of Good and Evil or On Moral Ends (Latin: De finibus bonorum et malorum), composed by Cicero in 45 BC, presents the ethical teachings of the major philosophical schools of the time in the form of dialogues recounted by Cicero to his friend Brutus. Lucius Torquatus serves as spokesman for epicureanism in the first two books, while Cato represents stoicism in books three and four. Book five presents Cicero's own academic skepticism.

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Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Academic Questions, Treatise De Finibus, and Tusculan Disputations. Multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: de Finibus, translated by H. Harris Rackham. HTML format.

Latin Library: De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum. Latin text, HTML format.

Loebulus. L040 - Cicero -- De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin with English translation by H. Rackham. Also at the Internet Archive.

Perseus: De finibus bonorum et malorum (Teubner, 1915). Latin text, HTML and XML format.

University of Adelaide: Treatise de Finibus, translated by Charles Duke Yonge. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: De finibus bonorum et malorum. Latin text, multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Rhetorical Questions: Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Raphael Woolf on Cicero - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Cicero.

Librivox: On the Ends of Good and Evil - public domain audiobook.

The Obstinate Classicist: On Moral Ends, summary by Bill Prueter.

Wikipedia: CiceroDe finibus bonorum et malorum.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero: Academica - dialogue on stoic and academic views of the theory of knowledge.

Cicero: Tusculan Disputations.

Plato: Phaedrus - cited by Cicero in Book Two.

Latin resources: Learn to read Latin texts in the original.


Theophrastus: Enquiry Into Plants

The Enquiry into Plants (Greek: ,Περὶ φυτῶν ἱστορία)  by Theophrastus is the earliest major work on botany in the classical tradition. Theophrastus seems to have specialised in applying the methods of the peripatetic school in this area, while his teacher focused on animals.

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Free online texts

Loebulus. L070 - Theophrastus -- Enquiry into Plants I: Books 1-5. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also available via the Internet Archive.

Loebulus. L079 - Theophrastus -- Enquiry into Plants II: Books 6-9. Treatise on Odours. Concerning Weather Signs. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. Also available via the Internet Archive.

ToposText: Enquiry into Plants, translated by Arthur Fenton Hort (1916). HTML text with linked Google Maps.

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: The Next Generation: the Followers of Plato and Aristotle - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Edward Worth Library: Theophrastus of Eresus.

Simon Fraser University: Theophrastus Project.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosphy: Theophrastus, by Katerina Ierodiakonou

Wikipedia: Theophrastus - Historia Plantarum (Theophrastus).

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Theophrastus: Characters

Aristotle: On the Soul (De Anima).

Aristotle: History of Animals.

Pliny: Natural History.

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Theophrastus: On Characters

The Characters (Ἠθικοὶ χαρακτῆρες), attributed to Theophrastus, is a collection of character sketches each illustrating some vice, often a vice of excess or deficiency, in line with Aristotle's doctrine of the mean, which suggests that virtue is a middle way between extremes. The work provides a valuable insight into the manners of late classical Athens. It has been suggested that the Characters was an influence on Theophrastus' pupil, the comic playwright Menander.

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Free online texts

An Eudaemonist: The Characters of Theophrastus, translated by R.C Jebb (1870). HTML format.

Loebulus. L225N - Theophrastus -- Characters of Theophrastus. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Μικρός Απόπλους: ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡΕΣ, Greek text. HTML format.

Perseus: Greek text, edited by H. Diels (Oxford, 1909).

Other Resources

History of Philosophy without any gaps: The Next Generation: the Followers of Plato and Aristotle - podcast by philosopher Peter Adamson.

Simon Fraser University: Theophrastus Project.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Theophrastus, by Katerina Ierodiakonou

Wikipedia: Theophrastus

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics.

Aristotle (attributed): On Virtues and Vices.

Aristotle: The Poetics.

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Aristotle (attributed): On Virtues and Vices

On Virtues and Vices (Greek: Περὶ Ἀρετῶν καὶ Κακιῶν; Latin: De Virtutibus et Vitiis Libellus) is a short ethical treatise once thought to be by Aristotle, but now more usually thought to be the work of a later follower.

On Virtues and Vices at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France 

Free online  texts

Internet Archive: The Works of Aristotle - Magna Moralia, Ethica Eudemia, De Virtutibus Et Vitiis. English translations, edited by W.D. Ross. Multiple formats.

Loebulus. L285 - Aristotle -- Athenian Constitution. Eudemian Ethics. Virtues and Vices. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text (ed. Bekker, 1831). English text, translated by H. Rackham. HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: Περί Αρετών και Κακιών - Greek text. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

Wikipedia: On Virtues and Vices.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aristotle: The Nicomachean Ethics.

Aristotle: The Eudemian Ethics.

Aristotle (attributed): The Magna Moralia.

Theophrastus: The Characters.

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Aristotle: The Athenian Constitution

The Athenian Constitution (Greek: Αθηναίων Πολιτεία) is thought to be the only text by Aristotle rediscovered in modern times, based on papyri recovered in the Nineteenth Century. It may be the last remnant of a project Aristotle is said to have initiated to collect the constitutions of all the Greek states.

The work should not be confused with another of the same title, once thought to be by Xenophon, but now generally attributed to an anonymous 'Old Oligarch'.

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Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Athenian Constitution, translated by Frederic G. Kenyon. Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: Αθηναίων Πολιτεία by Aristotle. Greek text. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Works of Aristotle Vol X: Politica, Oeconomica, Atheniensum Respublica, the latter translated by Frederic G. Kenyon. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: The Athenian Constitution, translated by Frederic G. Kenyon. HTML and TXT formats.

Internet History Sourcebook: The Athenian Constitution, translated by Frederic G. Kenyon. TXT format.

Loebulus. L285 - Aristotle -- Athenian Constitution. Eudemian Ethics. Virtues and Vices. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text, edited y Frederic G. Kenyon. English text, translated by H. Rackham. HTML and XML formats.

University of Adelaide: The Athenian Constitution, translated by Frederic G. Kenyon. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: The Athenian Constitution, translated by Frederic G. Kenyon. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

Librivox: The Constitution of Athens - public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: Constitution of the Athenians.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Plato: The Republic, The Laws.

Aristotle: The Politics

Xenophon: The Spartan Constitution.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Aristotle (attributed): The Economics

The Economics (Greek: Οἰκονομικά; Latin: Oeconomica) is a work attributed to Aristotle, although now more often thought to be by one of his followers. Its subject matter of household management reflects the origin of modern term economics in the Greek word for the household, oikos.

The Economics at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: The Oeconomica, translated by E.S. Forster (1920). Multiple formats.

Perseus: Greek text (Harvard, 1935). English text, translated by G.C. Armstrong (Harvard 1935).

Wikisource: Οικονομικά (Αριστοτέλης), Greek text.

Other Resources

Librivox: Economics - public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: Economics (Aristotle).

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aristotle: The Politics.

Xenophon: Oeconomicus.


Aristotle (attributed): The Magna Moralia

The Magna Moralia or Great Ethics is a treatise traditionally attributed to Aristotle, but now more often thought to be by a later writer in the Aristotelian tradition.

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Free online texts

Internet Archive: The Works of Aristotle - Magna Moralia, Ethica Eudemia, De Virtutibus Et Vitiis. English translations, edited by W.D. Ross (1915). Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Ηθικά Μεγάλα, Greek text.

Other Resources

Librivox: Magna Moralia, public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: Magna Moralia.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics.

Aristotle: Eudemian Ethics.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.