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April 2018

Euripides: Helen

Helen (Greek: Ἑλένη) is a play by Euripides based on a variant legend in which the real Helen never reached Troy but was taken to Egypt by the God Hermes, where she is rescued by Menelaus.

Free online texts

Internet Archive: Euripides I. Iphigeneia at Aulis, Rhesus, Hecuba, The daughters of Troy, Helen. Bilingual Loeb edition, translated by Arthur Sanders Way. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Helen, translated by E.P. Coleridge. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L009 - Euripides -- Euripides I: Iphigenia at Aulis. Rhesus. Hecuba. The Daughters of Troy. Helen. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Greek text and English translation by E.P. Coleridge. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Helen, translated by George Theodoridis, Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Helen, translated by E.P. Coleridge. Multiple formats.

Wikisource:  Greek text and multiple English translations. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

History of Ancient Greece: Euripides at War, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Sententiae Antiquae: Paris Donned a Menelaos Disguise to Convince Helen to Go To Troy! 7 October 2016.

Wikipedia: Helen (play)

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Homer: The Iliad.

Herodotus: The Histories - gives a version of the story that Helen never reached Troy, but took refuge in Egypt.

Thucydides: History of the Peloponnesian War - discounted Helen's role in the origins of the Trojan War.

Euripides: Iphigenia in Tauris- a play with a similar escape theme.

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Helen is listed.


Euripides: Ion

Ion (Greek: Ἴων) is a play by Euripides, probably composed around 412BC. The title character is the son of Apollo, by Creusa daughter of King Erechtheus of Athens. Abandoned at birth, his recognition by his mother in adulthood provided a theme that would influence the later New Comedy.

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Ίων, Greek text. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: The Ion of Euripides. Greek text with English translation. by A.W. Verrall (1890). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Ion, translated by Robert Potter. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L012 - Euripides -- Euripides IV: Ion. Hippolytus. Medea. Alcestis. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Greek text and English translation by Robert Potter (1938). HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Ion, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Ion, translated by Robert Potter. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Greek text and multiple English translations. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

Gutenberg: Euripides and His Age, by Gilbert Murray.

History of Ancient Greece: Euripides at War, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Wikipedia: Ion (play)

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Ion is listed.


Euripides: Iphigenia in Tauris

 Iphigenia from Casa di Lucio Cecilio Giocondo, Pompeii. Picture by Marie-Lan Nguyen. Via Wikisource.Iphigenia in Tauris (Greek: Ἰφιγένεια ἐν Ταύροις) is a tragedy by Euripides probably first performed in Athens some time around 412 BC. The play's usual English title is, strictly speaking, the Latin name meaning 'Iphigenia among the Taurians'.

Euripides follows the version of the Iphigenia story in the Cypria, which relates that when her father Agamemnon was about to sacrifice her to secure the success of the Trojan expedition, she was spirited away by the goddess Artemis to be a priestess in the land of the Taurians in Crimea.

The play deals with the arrival of a group of Greeks among whom Iphigenia recognises her brother Orestes. She saves him from being sacrificed and they escape together with the image of the goddess. The theme of escape has led some commentators to conclude that like Euripides' similar Helen, it was composed after the defeat of the Sicilian Expedition in 413 BC.

Iphigenia in Tauris at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg, Iphigenia in Tauris, translated by Gilbert Murray. Multiple formats.

Gutenberg: The Tragedies of Euripides, Vol I, translated by Theodore Alois Buckley (1892). Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: Iphigenia in Tauris, verse translation by Witter Bynner. (1915). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Iphigenia in Tauris, translated by Robert Potter. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L010N - Euripides -- Euripides II: Electra. Orestes. Iphigeneia in Taurica. Andromache. Cyclops. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Iphigenia in Tauris, translated by Robert Potter. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Iphigenia in Tauris, translated by George Theodoris. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Iphigenia in Tauris, translated by Robert Potter. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Greek text and multiple English translations. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

Gutenberg: Euripides and His Age, by Gilbert Murray.

History of Ancient Greece: Euripides at War, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Librivox: Iphigenia in Tauris, public domain audiobooks.

Wikipedia: Iphigenia in Tauris

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Homer: The Iliad

Epic Cycle: The Cypria.

Euripides: Iphigenia at Aulis

Euripides: Helen

Goethe: Iphigenia in Tauris.

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.