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March 2018

Euripides: The Trojan Women

Ajax raping Cassandra from the Palladium. From Wikimedia Commons by User:Bibi Saint-Pol.The Trojan Women is a tragedy by Euripides, originally produced in Athens in 415 BC, the same year in which the Athenians captured the island of Melos, an event of often thought to have influenced the play's theme.

It centres on the fate of a series of captive women during the sack of Troy. Hecuba, the widow of Priam is to become a slave of Odysseus. Her daughter, the prophetess Cassandra, foresees her own death along with Agamemnon, who will take her as his concubine. Andromache, the widow of Hector, whose son is taken from her by the Greeks, is allotted to Neoptolemus. Helen, the mistress of Paris persuades her husband Menelaus to spare her and take her back.  In the finals scenes, the body of Andromache's son Astyanax is returned to Hecuba for burial, and the women are taken away as the city burns.


Euripides' The Trojan Women at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy
Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Trojan Women, translated by Gilbert Murray (1915). Multiple formats. 

Internet Archive: The Trojan Women of Euripides, translated by Gilbert Murray. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: The Trojan Women. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L009 - Euripides -- Euripides I: Iphigenia at Aulis. Rhesus. Hecuba. The Daughters of Troy. Helen. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Poetry in Translation: Trojan Women, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

ToposText: English text indexed to accompanying map.

University of Adelaide: The Trojan Women, translated by E. P. Coleridge. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Greek text and multiple English translations. HTML and XML formats.

Performances and Reviews

YaleNews: ‘The Trojan Women’ at Yale Summer Cabaret laments Syrian war, by Mike Cummings, 23 June 2017.

Gate Threatre, London

Guardian: Trojan Women Review, by Mchael Billington, 13 November 2012.

Amman

Financial Times: Syrian refugees stage Euripides’ ‘The Trojan Women’, by Charlotte Eagar, 3 January 2014.

Flea Theatre, New York

New York Times: The Trojan Women’ Laments War and Bloodshed, From a Distance, by Laura Collins-Hughes, 1 September 2016.

Other Resources

Binghamton University: Ancient Tragedy Study Guide - Euripides' Trojan Women, by Andrew Scholtz.

Gutenberg: Euripides and His Age, by Gilbert Murray.

History of Ancient Greece: Euripides at War, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Internet Archive: Greek and Roman Plays - For the Intermediate Grades, by Dr Albert Cullum. Multiple formats.

Librivox: The Trojan Women. Public domain audiobooks, Coleridge and Murray translations.

University College London: Euripides' Trojan Women Study Guide, by Dr Rosa Andújar.

University College London:  Euripides, Trojan Women, by Professor Chris Carey.

University of Warwick: Summary - The Trojan Women by Euripides, by Mike Conley.

Wikipedia: The Trojan Women.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Homer: The Iliad.

Euripides: Hecuba.

Euripides: Andromache.

Thucydides: History of the Peloponnesian War. Recounts the sack of Melos which occurred around the time the play was first staged and may have influenced its theme.

Seneca: The Trojan Women - A Latin adaptation of the story.

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Pausanias: The Description of Greece

Butler1851GreecePelopThe Description of Greece (Greek: Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις) by Pausanias is a guide to continental Greece written in about 160 CE.  It focuses mainly on places and monuments of historical, religious and artistics interest, with observations on the natural world featuring only occasionally.

The work is divided into ten books covering: 1. Attica and Megara, 2. Corinth and Argolis, 3. Laconia, 4. Messenia. 5 and 6. Elis including Olympia, 7 Achaea, 8. Arcadia, 9, Boeotia, 10. Phocis including Delphi.

The Description of Greece at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: Pausanias's Description of Greece, English translation with a commentary by James George Frazer. Multiple formats.

Loebulus. L093 - Pausanias - Description of Greece I: Books 1-2 (Attica and Corinth). PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.
Loebulus. L188 - Pausanias - Description of Greece II: Books 3-5 (Laconia, Messenia, Elis 1). PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text (Teubner 1903) and English translation by W.H.S. Jones and H.A. Ormerod. HTML and XML formats.

Theoi.com: Description of Greece. English translation by by W.H.S. Jones and H.A. Ormerod. HTML  format.

ToposText: English text hyperlinked to accompanying maps. HTML format.

Wikisource: Greek text and English translations by Jones and Taylor.

Other Resources

Ancient History Encyclopedia: Pausanias (Geographer).

Digital Milliet Project: Excerpts on painting. Ancient Greek with English and French commentary. HTML format.

Livius: Pausanias the Periegete.

Peter Sommer Travels: Pausanias - The Father of Guidebooks, by Heinrich Hall.

PPG System: Pausanias Paths in Greece. English introduction to Greek language navigation system.

University of Texas at Austin Linguistics Research Center: Classical Greek Online - Lesson 10 - From Pausanias' Description of Greece. Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum.

Wikipedia: Pausanias (Geographer).

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Homer: The Iliad. See especially Book II.

Herodotus: The Histories.

Strabo: The Geography.

Butler: Atlas of Ancient Geography.

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Strabo: Geography

Map of the World according to Strabo. Via Wikimedia Commons.Strabo's Geographica or Geography (Greek: Γεωγραφικά) is the most important work on its subject to survive from the ancient world, giving a comprehensive account of those parts of Europe, Asia and Africa known to the Romans.

It's author, Strabo, came from a well-to-do Greek family in the city of Amasia, Pontus, and was born in around 64 BC.  His early education at Rome was the prelude to extensive travels in the Near East.  He adopted a Stoic philosophy which influenced a cosmopolitan admiration for the Romans. His lost Historical Sketches covered the periods before and after the work of Polybius, up to the time of Julius Caesar. The Geography may have been completed around around 7BC and revised in 18 AD.

Strabo's Geography  at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: The Geography of Strabo. Vol I | Vol II | Vol III. English translation by Hailton and Falconer. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: L 049 - Strabo - Geography I. Greek and English text. Loeb edition, multiple formats.

LacusCurtius: Strabo's Geography. English translation by H.L. Jones. HTML format.

Loebulus: L049 - Strabo -- Geography I: Books 1-2L211 - Strabo -- Geography V: Books 10-12L223 - Strabo -- Geography VI: Books 13-14L241 - Strabo -- Geography VII: Books 15-16 | L267 - Strabo -- Geography VIII: Book 17 and General Index. Greek and English text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Greek text and translations by Hamilton & Falconer (Books I-XVII) and by Jones (Books VI-XII).

Wikisource: Greek text available. English text not yet online but open for contributions.

Other Resources

Ancient World Mapping Center: Strabo Map.

BBC In Our Time: Strabo's Geographica. Melvyn Bragg in radio conversation with Paul Cartledge, Maria Pretzler, and Benet Salway.

Cartographic-images.net: Strabo's World Map.

Strabo the Geographer - Site by Sarah Pothecary.

Wikipedia: Strabo - Geographica.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Herodotus: The Histories.

Polybius: The Histories.

Pliny the Elder: Natural History - a similarly encyclopaedic writer who seems to have been oddly unaware of Strabo's work.

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Euripides: Heracles

Mosaic of the madness of Heracles from the Villa Torre de Palma. Picture by Carole Raddato, via Wikimedia CommonsHeracles or the Madness of Heracles (Greek: Ἡρακλῆς μαινόμενος, Latin Hercules Furens) is a tragedy by Euripides which may have been produced in about 417 BC. 

The play opens with Heracles' wife and children at the altar of Zeus in Thebes, where they are threatened with death by the tyrant Lycus. Heracles returns from the underworld, where he had been engaged on the last of his twelve labours, and rescues them. However, the goddess Hera drives him mad and he kills his own family. When he recovers his senses, he is filled with despair. Consoled by Theseus, who had returned from Hades with him, he is taken to Athens to be purified.

Heracles at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: Euripides with an English translation by Arthur Sanders Way (1930). Vol. III. Bacchanals, The Madness of Hercules, The Children of Hercules, The Phoenician Maidens, Suppliants. Multiple formats

Internet Classics Archive: Heracles, translated by E.P Coleridge. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L011N - Euripides -- Euripides III: Bacchanals. Madness of Hercules. Children of Hercules. Phoenician Maidens. Suppliants. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Heracles, translated by E. P. Coleridge. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Herakles, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Heracles, translated by E.P. Coleridge. Multiple formats.

Other Resources

History of Ancient Greece: Euripides at War, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Wikipedia: Herakles (Euripides)

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Euripides: Heracleidae.

Seneca: Hercules Furens - A Latin play telling the same story with some differences of plot.

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

Bloom's Western Canon: Heracles is listed.


Euripides: Electra

Orestes, Pylades and Elektra. Via Wikisource by user Bibi Saint-PolEuripides' Electra (Greek: Ἠλέκτρα) is sometimes thought to have been produced in around 413 BC, at the time of the Sicilian Expedition, but may be somewhat earlier.  The play gives Euripides' version of the story of the Argive princess Electra and her long-lost brother Orestes, and their murder of their mother Clytemnestra in revenge for the death of their father, Agamemnon.

This episode was also told in Sophocles' play of the same name and Aeschylus' The Libation Bearers. Euripides seems to satirize some elements of Aeschylus' version, notably with a recognition scene in which Electra rejects tokens of Orestes' identity that had been accepted in the older play.

Euripides' Electra at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Gutenberg: Electra, translated by Gilbert Murray (1905). Multiple formats. 

Gutenberg: Ηλέκτρα, Greek text. Multiple formats.

Internet Archive: Alcestis and Electra, translated by T.A. Buckley (1900). Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: Electra, translated by E.P. Coleridge. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L010N - Euripides -- Euripides II: Electra. Orestes. Iphigeneia in Taurica. Andromache. Cyclops. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Perseus: Electra, translated by E. P. Coleridge. HTML and XML formats.

Poetry in Translation: Elektra, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: Electra, translated by E.P. Coleridge.

Wikisource: Greek text and several translations in HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

Gutenberg: Euripides and His Age, by Gilbert Murray.

History of Ancient Greece: Euripides at War, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Librivox: Electra, translated by Gilbert Murray. Public domain audiobook.

Wikipedia: Electra (Euripides play).

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aeschylus: The Libation Bearers - Part of the Oresteia trilogy which parallels the events of Euripides' Electra.

Sophocles: Electra.

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Euripides: The Suppliants

Ruins of Eleusis by Carole Raddato, Wikimedia Commons.The Suppliants or The Suppliant Women (Greek: Ἱκέτιδες; Latin Supplices) is a tragedy by Euripides produced in around 422 BCE, a time when it's portrayal of an alliance between Athens and Argos would have been of some contemporary relevance.

The play opens immediately after the events recounted in Aeschylus' Seven Against Thebes. The Theban rulers have refused to allow the burial of the Argive leaders killed in the unsuccessful attack on their city. The mothers of the dead, accompanied by King Adrastus of Argos, travel to the shrine of Demeter at Eleusis in Attica. There they plead with Aethra, mother of King Theseus of Athens, for aid. Angered by the insolent demand of a Theban herald that he give up the suppliants, Theseus forcibly recovers the bodies. Eviadne, widow of Capaneus, immolates herself on her husband's pyre during the subsequent funeral rites. The play ends with the sons of the Argives pledging to avenge their fathers and acknowledge their debt to Athens. 


The Suppliants at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: Euripides with an English translation by Arthur Sanders Way (1930). Vol. III. Bacchanals, The Madness of Hercules, The Children of Hercules, The Phoenician Maidens, Suppliants. Multiple formats.

Internet Classics Archive: The Suppliants, translated by E.P. Coleridge. HTML and TXT formats.

Loebulus: L011N - Euripides -- Euripides III: Bacchanals. Madness of Hercules. Children of Hercules. Phoenician Maidens. Suppliants. Greek and English parallel text. Loeb edition, PDF format.

Poetry in Translation: The Suppliant Women, translated by George Theodoridis. Multiple formats.

University of Adelaide: The Suppliants, translated by E.P. Coleridge. Multiple formats.

Wikisource: Suppliants (Euripides). Multiple translations. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

Gutenberg: Euripides and His Age, by Gilbert Murray.

History of Ancient Greece: Euripides at War, podcast by Ryan Stitt.

Wikipedia: The Suppliants (Euripides).

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Aeschlyus: The Seven Against Thebes

Herodotus: The Histories - references a version of the same story at 9.27.

A.E. Haigh: The Tragic Drama of the Greeks (1896).

 Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.


Seneca: Moral Letters to Lucilius

The Death of Seneca, by Manuel Domínguez Sánchez. Via Wikisource.

The Moral Letters to Lucilius (Latin: Ad Lucilium epistulae morales) were composed by the Roman philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca ('The Younger'), during his retirement from the Imperial court in 62-65 AD, a period which ended with his suicide on the orders of the emperor Nero.

The 120 letters, collected in 20 books , were addressed to Seneca's friend Lucilius Junior, then the procurator of Sicily. They amount to informal moral essays, covering subjects such as the nature of the good, happiness and the right attitude to death. It is among the most popular of Seneca's works and as such an important source on Roman stoicism. It's adoption by early Christians contributed to its influence in the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

Moral Letters to Lucilius at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free online texts

Internet Archive: Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales. Vol. I | Vol. IIVol. III. Public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English. PDF and other formats.

Latin Library: Epistulae Morales Ad Lucilium -  HTML format. 

Loebulus. L075 - Seneca -- Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales I: Letters 1-65. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Loebulus. L076 - Seneca -- Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales II: Letters 66-92. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English.

Perseus: Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales. HTML and XML formats.

Wikisource: Latin - Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium. English - Moral Letters to Lucilius. HTML and other formats.

Other Resources

BBC In Our Time: Seneca the Younger - Radio discussion with Melvyn Bragg, Mary Beard, Catherine Edwards and Alessandro Schiesaro.

History of Philosophy without any gaps: Anger Management - Seneca, podcast by Peter Adamson.

How to be a Stoic: Seneca to Lucilius - Philosophy as a Guide to Life.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Lucius Annaeus Seneca.

Librivox: Moral Letters - public domain audiobook.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Seneca.

Stoics.com: Why Seneca's Moral Essays and Moral Epistles?

Wikipedia: Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Cicero: On Duties.

Marcus Aurelius: The Meditations.

Montaigne: Essays.

Latin Resources: Online materials for learning Latin.