Xenophon: Hellenica
Xenophon: Agesilaus

Xenophon: Anabasis

The Persian Empire in 490 BC, from the Department of History - United States Military AcademyThe Anabasis (sometimes translated 'ascent' or 'going up country') of Xenophon describes his role in the March of the Ten Thousand, Greek mercenaries recruited to support the campaign of Cyrus the Younger to seize the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes. Following the death of Cyrus at the battle of Cunaxa, and the murder of the Greek leaders, Xenophon led the survivors on an epic journey from Mesopotamia to the safety of the Greek cities on the Black Sea.

Xenophon's account may have influenced Alexander's later conquest of the Persian Empire. As a tale of adventure, it has often been used as introductory text for students of ancient Greek. Like Caesar's Gallic War, which has played a similar role for Latin, its military focus may not suit everyone. Readers using the Anabasis to learn Greek may find it useful to go through Jeff Rydberg-Cox's tutorial at the link below in conjunction with the Perseus or Loeb editions.

The Anabasis at Amazon: United States | Canada | United Kingdom | France | Germany | Spain | Italy

Free Online Texts

Gutenberg: Anabasis, translated by H.G. Dakyns.

Loebulus. L089 - Xenophon -- Hellenica, Books 6 and 7. Anabasis, Books 1-3. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Loebulus. L090 - Xenophon -- Anabasis, Books 4-7. Symposium and Apology. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English.

Perseus: Greek text (Oxford, 1904). English translation (Brownson, 1922). Online texts.

Wikisource: Anabasis, English translation by B. Jowett. Downloads via Book Creator.

Other resources

A Digital Tutorial For Ancient Greek Based On John William White's First Greek Book, created by Jeff Rydberg-Cox, Classical and Ancient Studies Program, University of Missouri-Kansas City. An online Classical Greek tutorial using vocabulary from the Anabasis.

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: Xenophon. Melvyn Bragg with Paul Cartledge, Edith Hall and Simon Goldhill.

Interpretation: Xenophon's Anabasis. Commentary by the philosopher Leo Strauss.

Wikipedia: Anabasis.

The Great Conversation: Further reading at Tom's Learning Notes

Herodotus: Histories - The first major Greek account of Persia differs from Xenophon's in some respects.

Xenophon: Cyropaedia - His other major work dealing with the Persian Empire is an idealised account of the education of Cyrus the Great

Xenophon: Hellenica - An account of events in Greece in the early fourth century BC.

Xenophon: Agesilaus - life of the Spartan King whom Xenophon fought alongside after his return to Greece.

Arrian: The Anabasis of Alexander - best surviving account of the later, more successful, Greek invasion of Persia led by Alexander the Great.

Samuel Butler: Atlas of Ancient Geography (1841).  Particularly: Armenia, Colchis, Iberia, and Albania (3.2 MB) | Asia Minor (3.9 MB) | Greece and Islands (3.6 MB) | Greece and the Peloponnese (4.3 MB) | Greece and the Peloponnesus, South (3.8 MB) | Islands in the Aegean Sea (4.5 MB) |Oriens (Persia) (3.6 MB) | Syria, Mesopotamia, and Assyria (3.0 MB)

Ancient Greek resources: Learn to read Greek classics in the original.

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